Financial institutions are usually in the process of significant transformation. The force at the rear of the transformation of these establishments is creativity in information technology. Information and communication technology is at the Centre on this global change curve of mobile and internet financial in Kenya. Rapid progress information technology made banking tasks more efficient and cheaper. This study wanted todetermine the effect of cellular and internet-banking on functionality of financial organizations in Kenya where the survey was executed on banking institutions in Nairobi.
The study likewise sought to distinguish the level of use of mobile and internet banking in financial corporations. The study looked at 30 finance institutions. The study located that the most frequent internet bank service is balance inquiry while the least is online bill repayment. Cash disengagement was the most frequently used mobile financial service although purchasing products was the least commonly used.
History of the examine
Mobile phone banking is usually an advancement that has steadily rendered on its own in pervasive ways slicing across a lot of financial institutions and other sectors of the economy.
During the modern world mobile financial advanced via providing mere text messaging solutions to that of pseudo net banking wherever customers cannot only view their bills and set up multiple types of notifies but as well transact actions such as finance transfers, redeem loyalty coupon codes, deposit cheques via the mobile phone and teach payroll primarily based transactions (Vaidya 2011). The world has also turn into increasingly dependent on doing business inside the cyber space, across the internet and World Wide Web. Net commerce in the own value has expanded in various impressive forms of cash, and depending on digital info issued simply by private market actors, provides in one way or another replaced for point out sanctioned lender notes and checking accounts as normal means of repayments (Cohen 2001).
Technology offers greatly advanced playing a serious role in improving the standards of support delivery in the financial institution sector. Days will be long gone when customers might queue inside the banking admission waiting to pay their very own utility bills, college fees or any other monetary transactions. They will now accomplish this at their very own convenience by using their ATM cards or higher the internet from the comfort of their homes. Additionally as a result of tremendous regarding the cellular phone industry many financial institutions have ventured into the untapped prospect and have combined with cellphone network companies to offer financial services with their clients. ATMbanking is one of the initial and broadly adopted full e-banking services in Kenya (Nyangosi ou al. 2009).
However relating to an twelve-monthly report by simply Central Lender of Kenya its ownership and use has been overtaken by mobile phone banking in the last few years (CBK 2008). The suggested cause of this is that numerous low income earners now have access to cell phones. A positive element of mobile phones is that mobile networks are available in distant areas by a low cost. The indegent often have better familiarity and trust in cellphone companies compared to normal finance institutions.
In general terms, banking is a business process of accepting and safeguarding money owned by other individuals and organizations and then lending out this money in order to generate a profit. The Banking Work of Kenya defines financial to indicate the accepting from members of the public of money in deposit repayable on require or in the expiry of any fixed period or after see, the acknowledging from members of the public of money on current account and payment and acceptance of checks plus the employing involving held about deposit or on saving account or any element of it by simply lending, expenditure or in a other manner for the account and the risk of anyone so employing the money. At the moment Kenya provides 43 qualified commercial financial institutions of these, thirty-one are nearby owned and 12 happen to be foreign possessed.
Citibank, Habib Bank, normal chartered and Barclays Financial institution are among the list of foreign-owned banking institutions in Kenya. The government of Kenya includes a substantial share in three of Kenya’s commercial banking companies. The remaining community commercial financial institutions are largely family owned. Commercial banks in Kenya accept deposits from individuals and make a profit by using the deposits to offer loans to businesses by high interest rates. These banks are governed by the Central Bank Act and the Companies’ Act, which stipulates the activities they should be engaged in, the rules upon publishing of economic statements, bare minimum capital requirements as well as arrange requirements. Instances of new innovations in the Kenyan banks contain adoption of ATMs, wise cards, internet and portable banking as discussed under.
Mobile phone banking (m-banking) refers to provision and availment of banking andfinancial services through the accompanied by a mobile telecommunication devices. The scope of offered services may include establishments to conduct bank and stock market transactions, administer accounts and to get customized data. Mobile systems in Kenya offer m-money services with the intention of M-pesa by Safaricom, Fruit money by simply Orange, Yu-cash by Essar, and Airtel money by Airtel. Currently the mobile money market size is regarding 15 , 000, 000 users shifting Kshs. a couple of billion daily, of these over 14 million are Mpesa customers. M-money providers have got partnered with commercial financial institutions such as Value Bank, I&M Bank, and Kenya Industrial Bank, Barclays and Cooperative to offer mobile phone based lending options that make an effort to reach the unbanked.
Internet financial (e-banking) is definitely the use of internet and telecommunication networks to supply a wide range of value added products and services to bank clients (Steven, 2002) through the use of a method that allows individuals to perform bank activities at home or from their offices or higher the internet. A few online banking companies are traditional banks which will also offer online banking, although some are on the net only and still have no physical presence. On the net banking through traditional banking institutions enables consumers to perform all routine orders, such as account transfers, balance inquiries, bill payments, and stop-payment needs, and some even offer on-line loan applications. Customers can get account information anytime, day or night, and this can be done coming from anywhere. Net banking offers improved banking efficiency in rendering solutions to clients. Financial institutions in Kenya are not able to ignore info systems given that they play a significant role within their operations mainly because customers will be conscious of technical advancements and demand top quality services.
A fundamental assumption of most latest research in operations improvement and operations learning continues to be that technology has a direct bearing in performance improvement (Upton and Kim, 1999). Strategic managing in financial establishments demand that they can should have effective systems set up to table unpredictable situations that can preserve their operations while minimizing the risks involved throughtechnological innovative developments. Only financial institutions that are able to adapt to their changing environment and adopt new ideas and business strategies have assured survival. A number of the forces of change which may have impacted the performance of economic institutions primarily include scientific advancements just like use of mobiles and the internet. Since the commencing of e-banking Kenyan finance institutions have seen many adjustments. Customers have access to fast, efficient and convenient banking services.
The majority of financial institutions in Kenya will be investing huge sums in money in information and communication technology (ICT). However as the rapid development of ICT has made some financial tasks more effective and less expensive, technological developments have their great number of concerns; for example they take a large talk about of bank resources, plastic card fraud specifically on misplaced and stolen cards and counterfeit credit card fraud. Therefore there is a have to manage costs and risks associated with internet banking. It is vital that internet banking improvements be made through sound examination of hazards and costs associated to stop harm in banks performance. Bank functionality is directly dependent on productivity and success of internet banking and on the other hand small controls in standards to prevent losses connected with internet banking.
In order never to impair on their prosperity, finance institutions need to strike a balance between limited controls and standards in efficiency of sites banking. This is possible in the event the effects of internet banking in financial institutions and its particular customers are very well analyzed and understood. Cellular money has emerged being a strong competition to finance institutions in Kenya. Initially cellular phones were produced to improve interaction from the previous primitive varieties of communications such as smoke and drums. Financial institutions introduced ICT as an improvement to the bank channels. It has thus allowed bank consumers’ access data relating to their very own accounts, (Tiwari, Buse and Herstatt, 2007. ).
In this regard mobile phone companies have taken mobile phone money providers deeper into the financial sector by offering a number of financial services through all their networks. The CBK as well as the Communication Commission of Kenya (CCK) include allowed companies to offer cellular money services as right now there appears to be zero reprieve since competition in the mobile money business continues to be heating up with entry of recent money transfer systems which in turn now allow transactions across all mobiletelephone service providers just like M-pesa.
Aims of the examine.
The research objectives happen to be:
To ascertain the impact of mobile and internet banking on the performance of financial institutions in Kenya. To establish the extent of usage of mobile phone and internet banking monetary institutions in Kenya.
Relevance of the research
The research will be critical to emerging banking institutions as it will provide answers for the factors resistant to the implementation of websites banking in Kenya, demonstrate of the accomplishment and development associated with the rendering of internet bank and focus on the areas of banking functions that can be increased via internet banking. It is equally significant for bank executives as well as the insurance plan makers of the banks and financial institutions to understand internet banking as a merchandise of internet business with a view to making strategic decisions. The study is usually expected to give an insight around the state of mobile funds services as being a competition towards the commercial banks in Kenya and the factors that have greatly influenced the growth.
Players in the financial institution sector and telecommunications market will find the research useful because they can use the findings to strategize on how they can mutually benefit from this kind of development. Finally, our analyze adds to the existing literature, and is a valuable instrument for students, academicians, institutions, corporate managers and individuals who want to learn more about mobile and internet banking.
Limitations from the study
In executing this analyze a number of challenges were experienced. There was bureaucracy in getting acceptance to respond to questionnaires with most establishments insisting that permission become sought through the Chief Executive Officer or Human Resource Manager. This resulted in delays in obtaining the essential responses intended for data examination in time. A few customers had been unwilling to divulge details and seemed to not have time for you to fill in the questionnaires.
This part seeks to learn in depth the concept of internet and mobile banking through a review of the various theories as well as scientific studies. Assumptive framework
Theory of information development and contemporary banking theory Diamond (1984) suggested that economic agents may find that worthwhile to create information about conceivable investment opportunities if these details is not really free; for instance surplus models could bear substantial search costs in the event they were to search out borrowers directly. There would be duplication of information creation costs in the event there were zero banks since surplus products would bear considerable expenditures in searching for the relevant info before they will commit funds to a borrower. Banks enjoy economies of scale and also have expertise in processing data related to deficit units (borrowers). They may get information upon first connection with borrowers in real impression it’s more likely to be discovered over time through repeated dealings with the customer.
As they develop this information they develop a credit score and become experts in finalizing information. As a result they have an info advantage and depositors are able to place cash with a financial institution knowing that this will likely be directed to the appropriate credit seekers without the past having to get information costs. Bhattacharya and Thakor (1993) contemporary banking theory suggests that banks, along with other financial intermediaries are crucial in the allowance of capital in the economy. This theory is usually centered on data asymmetry, a great assumption that “different economical agents have got different components of information on relevant economic variables, in that providers will use this information for their very own profit (Freixas and Rochet 1988). Asymmetric information causes adverse variety and moral hazard concerns. Asymmetric info problem that occurs before the transaction occurs and is also related to the lack of information about the lenders characteristics, is known as adverse assortment. Moral threat takes place following your transaction arises and is related to incentives by the lenders to behave opportunistically.
Innovation durchmischung theory
Mahajan and Peterson (1985) defined a great innovation as any idea, thing or practice that is perceived as new simply by members with the social program and described the konzentrationsausgleich of innovation as the procedure by which the innovation can be communicated through certain programs over time between members of social systems. Diffusion of innovation theory attempts to describe and describe the components of how new inventions in this case internet and mobile financial is adopted and turns into successful Clarke (1995). Sevcik (2004) explained that not every innovations will be adopted whether or not they are very good it may take a long time for an innovation being adopted.
He further stated that resistance to change may be a hindrance to durchmischung of creativity although it may not stop the innovation it will eventually slow it down. Rogers (1995) discovered five important attributes that greatly affect the rate of adoption. For instance , relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, triability and observability. In respect to Rogers, the rate of adoption of new innovations is determined by how an organization perceives it is relative benefit, compatibility, triability, observability and complexity. In the event that an organization in Kenya observes the benefits of mobile and net banking they may adopt these kinds of innovations given other factors such as the availability of the required tools. Usage of this sort of innovations will be faster in organizations which may have internet access and information technology departments than in businesses without.
New literature includes a narrow concentrate and ignores internet banking almost totally; it translates internet cash with the substitution of foreign currency with internet gadget. As an example Freedman (2000) suggests that internet banking and internet money consists of 3 devices; get devices, placed value cards, and network money. Net banking is simply the use of new products and is as a result ignored. Net money is a sum of stored worth (smart cards) and network money (value stored in computer hard drives). Santomero and Seater (1996), Prinz (1999) and Shy and Tarkka (2002) present versions that identify conditions underneath which substitute payments replacement for currency.
The majority of these models indicate that there is for least apossibility for net substitutes for currency to emerge and flourish on the wide size depending on the characteristics of the numerous technology and people of the potential users. Friedman (1999), intimated that internet banking gives the possibility that a whole alternative payment processing system not underneath the control of the Central Financial institution may occur. Today computers make it at least possible to bypass the payment system completely, instead applying direct zwischenstaatlich clearing and settlement (Friedman, 1999).
Styles in mobile phone and net banking in Kenya
With the emerging wave details driven overall economy, the financial industry in Kenya offers inevitably located itself not able to resist scientific indulgence. It has led to a boom in development of portable banking laying down a strong base for low cost bank, and regarding mobile phone use in rural Kenya. Standard Chartered in 2009 released its cellular banking in seven markets in The african continent. In the Kenyan market it offers a number of solutions on a one of a kind, user-friendly platform called Unstructured Supplementary Providers Data (USSD) and is limited on GSM carrier sites which enable customers to get into banking in real time, anywhere in the world, through their mobiles. The platform is actually a convenient menu-driven application which is not dependent on specific customer devices and does not have to be downloaded.
Barclays bank’s m-banking platform is recognized as ‘hello money’. It allows customers to handle their financial institution in their portable and access banking companies anytime/anywhere on the go. Unlike other players inside the sector this can be all totally free. Co-operative financial institution pioneered mobile phone banking back in 2004 by simply enabling clients to access their very own accounts and transact using their mobile phones. It gives services such while balance inquiries, mini-statements, SMS alerts about credit and debit ventures to an consideration, pay bills and money transfer. Collateral bank alternatively has its own m-banking platform known as Eazzy 24/7 offering solutions similar to the ones from co-operative lender. Telephone and PC financial is a facility that enables clients, via phone calls, find out about all their position using their bankers by simply merely dialing the telephone amounts given to them by the banking companies. In addition , the computers on the phone would need special unique codes given to absolutely free themes as a means of identification of authentic users before they can receive details they expected for.
Telephone and PC banking gives the bank towards the doorstepof the customer, it does not require the customer to leave his premises. The card system is a distinctive internet repayment type. Smart cards are plastic equipment with embedded integrated circuit being used for arrangement of financial obligations. Depending on the elegance, it can be used like a Credit Card, Debit Card and ATM credit cards. The playing cards are internetally loaded with money value and is carried around like money and retail outlet information on a microchip. The microchip is made up of a “purse in which value is placed internetally. In addition , it also is made up of security programs which guard transactions among one card user as well as the other. It is also transferred straight to a retailer, merchant or any other store to pay for goods and services, and just like cash, deals between people without the need to get banks or any other third parties. Also, the device does not require central cleaning, it is highly valued immediately.
A research methodology courses the researcher in collecting, analyzing and interpreting noticed facts (Bless and Achola, 1988). This chapter features the reasonable framework being followed in the process of performing the study. It can be divided into: exploration design, inhabitants and test, data collection and info analysis.
According to McMillan and Schumacher (2001) a research style is a plan for selecting subjects, research sites and info collection types of procedures to answer your research questions. Is it doesn’t conceptual framework within which usually research is conducted and comprises the blueprint for the gathering of data as well as the analysis thereof of the gathered data Based on the purpose of the study and the kind of data involved, descriptive and qualitative research designs had been used. The goal was going to provide a very clear understanding of mobile and internet banking and its particular usage economic institutions and thus conclude around the impact it includes had on their performance. Qualitative data was collected from your managers, subordinate staff along with from consumers of the financial institutions.
Population and Sample.
Cooper and Emory (1995) define inhabitants as the entire collection of elements about which the researcher desires to make a few inferences. A feature is the subject on which the measurement has been taken and is the unit with the study. The population of interest with this study consisted of 61 financial institutions operating in Kenya of which simply 30 reacted. The managers, employees and customers had been targeted because the key participants. There was a need to test the population mainly because not all the citizenry elements make use of mobile and internet financial. The study consequently used stratified sampling. This can be the process of separating members with the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. The strata should be mutually exclusive: every element in the population should be assigned to one stratum. Financial institutions were classified in respect to microfinance institutions, SACCOS and business banks wherever 2 microfinance institutions, eleven SACCOS and 17 commercial banks were sampled.
Primary options were used in info collection. Open up and close-ended questionnaires had been administered to target respondents. Altogether two forms were provided: one to managers and workers and one more to clients. They purposed to find out data regarding the degree of usage of portable and internet banking, demographics of the clients, services presented and employed, level of fulfillment, impact on efficiency, opportunities intended for growth and challenges confronted through the use of mobile and net banking. This kind of instrument allowed for cost and time savings for the respondents as well as the researchers.
According to Bryman and Bells (2003) data analysis identifies a technique used to make inferences from info collected by means of a systematic and objective identification of particular characteristics. Once data is usually collected it really must be edited to verify towards the completeness of information, coded in order to assign numbers or symbols to the numerous answers to get effective categorization/classification, entered to be able to convert the info gathered to a medium to get viewing and manipulation (e. g. stand out or statisticalpackage for cultural sciences SSPS) and finally viewed through the use of rate of recurrence tables and charts. Collected data was analyzed applying both quantitative and qualitative measures. Qualitative data with regards to customer level satisfaction, issues faced demographics and solutions provided and used had been analyzed employing content examination to gauge the semantic items of the communication. Qualitative data was reviewed using record data research. The data was tabulated in pie-charts, tables and charts for much easier understanding and presentation.
Info Analysis and Interpretation
This section gives the data evaluation, findings and discussion of the research in line with the study objectives of the study, the study’s exploration objective was going to establish the impact of mobile phone and net banking upon financial efficiency of financial establishments in Kenya. To achieve the aim the research increased a number particular objective; to ascertain the magnitude of use of mobile bank and the level of use of sites banking monetary institutions in Kenya.
The response rate with the questionnaires through the three types of institutions under examine was pretty high, out from the 98 questionnaires sent to the respondents, sixty four questionnaires equally from buyers and managers/employees were delivered for analysis. To enhance the caliber of the data attained structured inquiries were used whereby the respondents were asked to offer various indicators on mobile phone and internet banking. Different data were collected to meet this study in accordance with the methodology. The software that utilized for the subsequent analysis was Microsoft stand out and Record Package intended for Social Sciences (SPSS).
The study revealed that among the financial institutions selected, commercial financial institutions had the very best usage of internet banking in 43. 3%, SACCOs acquired the second greatest usage of internet banking although non-e of the microfinance organizations used net banking. Amidst all the banks surveyed commercial banks experienced the highest use of mobile bank, SACCOs the other highest whereas MFIs acquired the least use of mobile banking even though every one of them used cellular banking. From the services offered by financial institutions through internet bank the services that consumers used the majority of was online balance inquiry (40%) whereas the least applied service was online expenses payment (3. 3%). According to the financial institutions the customer turn out level was excessive (63. 3%) as a result of the usage of internet financial. 66. 7% of the participants indicated that internet bank had a impact on performance whereas simply 6. 7% indicated it had not afflicted on efficiency of the banking institutions
The study could achieve the set targets; to explore the impact of mobile phone and internet banking about performance of economic institutions, as well as the extent of use of portable and internet banking, by surveying an agent sample of economic institutions within just Nairobi. The research found that commercial banking companies had the greatest rate of usage of internetbanking among the banks sampled. SACCOS are slowly and gradually adopting internet banking, whilst micro fund institutions never have yet implemented internet financial. The study says the most prevalent internet bank services were seeking product rate details and the make use of online bank cards. Since its introduction in mid-2005, the adoption of internet bank has been gradual due to damaged unavailability of infrastructure and lack of supportive legislation intended for internet bank (Nyangosi et al 2009).
However the adoption of internet bank has increased performance with the banking sector due to elevated efficiency, success and productivity. The study discovered that cellular banking faces various challenges among them getting, system holdups hindrances impediments by the mobile phone money transfer service providers, sluggish processing of transactions especially during the weekends, high orders costs, limit on the amount of cash that can be withdrawn in a day and fraud. These challenges could be solved through regular maintenance of mobile money transfer systems which will help in managing the systems’ capacity and in turn addresses the problem of transaction delays and increase customer service through speedy support and reduce user charges.
Suggestions for further study
The study focused on the impact of sites and mobile banking upon financial efficiency of financial establishments in Kenya while its evident its widespread growth influences on the general economy too. Therefore , a study should be carried out to investigate the impact of portable and net banking within the economy. The study found that mobile bank has been implemented at a faster rate than internet bank therefore a study needs to be conducted to investigate so why this is the case.
Berestien, A. (1998), Budgetary Policy Implications of Digital Money, Kyklos, Vol. 51. Bhattacharya, S. and A. Thakor (1993), ”Contemporary Bank Theory, ” Journal of economic Intermediation a few, 2-50.
Bilderbeek, R (Dir. ) (1994): ”Case research in progressive and knowledge- intensive organization services. ” TNO Statement. STB/94/041. Study for
the EC DG XIII, print EIMS Programme.
Bryman and Bell (2003), is definitely the resource-based ‘view’ a useful perspective for proper management analysis?, The Schools of Administration Review, 26(1), 22-40
Central Bank of Kenya. (2008) Bank Supervision Report. Nairobi: Central Bank of Kenya Central Lender of Kenya. (2009) Financial institution Supervision Record. Nairobi: Central Bank of Kenya Central Bank of Kenya. (2010) Annual Record. Nairobi: Central Bank of Kenya Cooper, D and Emory, C. (1995) Organization Research Strategies. Chicago. Irwin Diamond, G. and G. Dybvig (1983) ” Lender runs, deposit insurance and liquidity, ” Journal of Political Economics 91, pp. 401-419
ECB (1999) ” Payments Devices in the Euro Union”: Sequela incorporating 1997figures (Blue Book), January.
Freedman, C. (2000), Monetary Coverage Implementation: Past, Present and Future-”Will Electric Money Lead to the Eventual Demise of Central Bank? ” Intercontinental Finance, Volume. 3, Number 2, pp. 211-227
Freixas, X. and J. C. Rochet (1998), Microeconomics of banking, ÜBER Press. Friedman, B, (1999), the Future of Budgetary Policy: The Central Bank as an Army with Just a Signal Corps? InternationalFinance, Vol. 2, No . 3, pp. 321-338.
Goodhart, E. (2000). Can Central Banking Make it through the THAT Revolution? InternationalFinance, Vol. three or more, No . 2 . pp. 189-209. Juniper Analysis, (2009). Cellular Banking Tactics: Applications, Options and Market segments 2010-2015.
Kariuki, N. (2005), Six Questions in Electronic digital Money and Banking IMF Working Daily news, IMF Company. Vol. nineteen. February.
Mcmillan & Schumaker (2001); Non-enforceable implementation of enterprise mobilization: and disovery study of the critical success factors
Industrial Administration & Info Systems, 105 (6), 786-814.
Prinz, A. (1999), Profit, the Real and the Virtual Community; E-Money, C-Money, and the Demand for CB-Money, Netnomics, Vol. 1, pp. 11-35.
Santomero, A. M, and Seater L. J, (1986). Alternative Monies and the demand for Media of Exchange, Record of Money, Credit rating and Banking, Vol. twenty eight, pp. 942-960.
Steven A. (2002), Info Systems: The knowledge of E-Business, New Jersey: Natalie Anderson, pp. 11-36
Tarkka, J. (2002), The Market for Electronic Funds Cards, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 34, pp. 299-314.
Mutual pay for research examination mutual thesis
Vitamin, Stocks And Bonds, Expenditure Portfolio, Inventory Portfolio Excerpt from Thesis: 98% to 43. 72%. The standard fund in this category contains a mean total return of -0. 64% and ...
The historical cost accounting convention article
INTRODUCTION Realised-profit, matching-based, traditional cost accruals accounting (HCA) has for over fifty years been repeatedly challenged as being an insufficient basis intended for the dimension of “income which reviews increments ...
Inside job response paper dissertation
This catastrophe, the United States and the world is facing is definitely the effect of the lack of control and regulation upon certain monetary activities. As a result of continuing ...
Starbucks mission sociable responsibility and
1 . How come do you think Starbucks has been therefore concerned with sociable responsibility in its overall business strategy? Two reasons Starbucks has been therefore concerned with interpersonal responsibility ...
The nyu stern executive mba program s curriculum
several. The NYU Stern Business MBA program’s curriculum is designed with a solid global focus. Stern is committed to helping students develop not only a more deeply set of specialist ...
Sensible accounting essay
There is no generally accepted theory of accounting. There are a number of accounting theories (though a systematic attempt has been made by Monetary Accounting Plank (FASB) of USA and ...
Cost salvage value total units of development
Salta Business installs a manufacturing machine in its factory at the beginning of the year at a cost of $87, 000. The machine’s beneficial life is predicted to be five ...
Benefits and drawbacks of portable banking essay
Many key commercial banking institutions are now supplying consumers the option to make debris, send funds, and carry out other program tasks using a mobile iphone app. Bank customers can ...
Dishonest behavior of financial accounting
Accounting may be best described as being a type of application or terminology put in place in order to provide appropriate details with regards to the financial position of an ...
Finance the beta of spock s portfolio is corporate
Stock Portfolio, Financing, Corporate Finance, Finance Economics Excerpt from Corporate: Finance the beta of Spock’s stock portfolio is (. 5)(. 7)+(. 5)(1. 1) = zero. 9 The beta of Kirk’s ...