The break of Collateral Funding had a far-reaching effect on business practices and institutions. Although it happened three decades ago, the teachings from Collateral Funding continue to be meaningful and constructive at present. Auditors of Equity Funding failed to collect sufficient proof, check inside control and substantiate computer.

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The review premise”” understanding internal control system AUS 402. forty one requires the auditor to get an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit. The effective inside control can offer “protection against human errors and reduce problems or irregularities’ (Leung ainsi que al, 2007), as well as give reasonable peace of mind to auditors for counting on internal control to examine under limit of economical fee.

In order to support an impression on the economic statement, auditors need a enough knowledge of interior control, including design of policies and procedures of internal control, after which determine whether or not they are in operation in assessing audit risk and making audit programs. (Leung ainsi que al, 2007).

The internal control procedures can be eroded and invalidated sleeping with managing override and collusion.

As to EFCA, a considerable amount of staff involved in collusion. This should had been detected by simply auditors in the event that they examined the control environment from the company, such as the ethics and integrity of management and employees, and checked whether segregation of duties was carried out.

Regrettably, the auditors of EFCA poorly comprehended the internal control procedures in EFCA, specifically its digital accounting system (Lee and Marc, 2002). There were glaring inconsistencies and irregularities inside the inter-company accounts of EFCA and its subsidiaries. The auditors should have recognized the lack of interior control if they overcome the parent’s account with subsidiary’s accounts; and the laptop fraud will not be invisible long experienced they retained update their particular technological expertise and noticed or been through the data working process to ensure data happen to be reliable.

After the internal control system isn’t fully understood, the initial assessment of control risk is problematic. It was unpractical for auditors to make a view on control risk and design a proper audit approach. The wrong wisdom on control system and audit technique may be the immediate reason of failure of auditing in EFCA. The auditors mistakenly trusted the potency of control systems and depended on administration. One of case was Haskins and Sells, the auditors of EFLIC, who total relied upon print-outs and identical data made by EFLIC’s laptop (Lee et al, 2002).

In addition , the auditors also failed to test out the effectiveness of the design an operation of internal control according to their judgment on control risk. The generally test procedures base about audit facts collection. MANGO 330 needs the lower analysis of control risks, the greater support the auditor should certainly obtain. However , the auditors failed to attain sufficient and competent proof to support all their judgment, which will be discussed in next section.

The examine basis”-audit data collection

MANUBRIO 500. a few (ISA 500. 2) requires that auditors collect and evaluate “sufficient and competent evidential matter in the development of an opinion on economic statements.

In areas where auditors find suspect or including material concerns, they should gather more examine evidence. The cash-flow figures are hard to manipulate because auditors may check it by contrasting it with bank transactions. However , and there is usually so many items in under assets, it the area the auditor should certainly focus on and collect particular evidence. Just like the account receivable in EF, a “25 million’s embrace California subsidiary’s account receivable was cooked properly to solve the amount shortage issue. Had the auditors reconciled financial reports with legers and first document and re-performed a variety of calculations, just like totaling the accounts receivable subsidiaries, not necessarily hard to have the inconsistency between parent and subsidiary consideration.

External evidence is generally more reliable than inner generated evidences due to its self-employed source. Concerning Equity Financing, such evidence could have been wanted from linked companies and independent businesses like customers (Dean and Wolnizer, 1978). Unfortunately, one of the most criticisms on auditors of EFCA will be that they failed to collect enough and skilled external evidence to support their judgment on effectiveness of control program and very rely on management representation. The auditors attempted to send out coverage confirmations into a sample of policyholders, while the letter was not sent by auditors however the officers of EFCA. Then they filled out the forms for the fictitious policyholders (Dean and Wolnizer, 1978). Experienced the auditors collect sufficient external data, the fraud can be detected in early level.

Once the examine evidence is usually not sufficient to support the judgment on internal control and evaluation on examine risks, the audit methods and audit strategy constructed on those would be broken and difficult. Consequently, the auditors would not be able to pull a correct thoughts and opinions on fact and fairness of financial transactions.

Biggest characteristic of EFCA fraud””The worn away of digital systems One of the most common forms of computer crime is data diddling. And one of the classic data diddling frauds was your Equity Funding case (M. E. Kabay, 2002). EFCA lacked the assertion of inherent risk and inside control on computerized systems. Sound regulates over a digital system should include general regulates and application controls (Gay and Simnett, 2005).

In case of general handles in EFCA, as the frauds had been collusive by the management and employees either actively or perhaps passively, there are almost no inner controls throughout the company. For example , segregation of duties means the parting of contrapuesto functions within the IT division. However in EFCA, The movie director had advised a programmer to write some type of computer program to develop fictitious guidelines, and then the phony policies holders were “killing off by the developer without making a pattern of “deaths that might arouse the reinsurers’ suspicions (Lee ou al, 2002). In this way, the incompatible capabilities were merged, leading to a means00 for fraud eventually.

About application settings, it consist of user regulates and IT controls. The IT employees should implement input settings through implementing control quantités, key confirmation and crucial entry acceptance. EFCA naturally did not, at least weak, put into practice these input controls, since the data inputted were coupled with real and fictitious info. Furthermore, output controls, results should be right, reasonable and later accessible to authorized users. As a laptop program had been used in EFCA, auditors appear did not have sufficient knowledge on this highly technological and quickly expanding subject matter. The professionals should be instructed to help the auditors generate the evidences rather than using evidences given by EFCA. Alternatively, they have to decline such an engagement since they do not have the skills necessary to adequately complete the job.

The significance for auditors are obvious. Though it’s the management’s obligation to implement satisfactory internal controls, yet , AUS 402. 41 requires the auditor to obtain an understanding of inner control highly relevant to the examine. Auditors should discharge their particular duties realistically with professional skills and cares, observing the skeptical points which might indicate the chance of frauds, consequently, the fraudulence in Collateral Funding will not have been previous for so very long.


Auditors’ poor understanding of internal control in EFCA and inability to obtain sufficient and skilled evidence to check and support their view were the important thing reasons of fraud in EFCA in auditor aspect. Computerized program played a critical part in control systems. The lack of knowledge and technology skills on this program deteriorated the power of auditors in discharging their obligations.


1 . Leung, Coram and Cooper (2007) Contemporary Auditing & Assurance Providers, 3rd Release 2 . Lee, J T. Fredrick, A. Marc, L E. 2002, [Book Chapter] The Equity Funding Documents. DOI 12. glsnp736/5028 3. Robert M. Loeffler, 1974, Trustee Record of the Trustee of Value Funding Corporation of America Pursuant to Section 167(3) of the Personal bankruptcy Act (11 U. S. C. 567(3)) 4., “Equity Funding: Can it happen again (accessed 29/09/2007) five. G. Gay and lesbian and L. Simnett, 2006, Auditing and Assurance Providers in Australia, McGraw Hill 6th. G W Dean, S W Wolnizer March 1978, The Investments Fraud of the Century, The Chartered Documentalist, The Chartered Accountant, DOI 10. glsnp763/5003 7. U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission 2002, Study Pursuant to Section 108(d) in the Sarbanes-Oxley Action of 2002 on the Ownership by the United States Financial Credit reporting System of a Principles-Based Accounting System, DOI 10. glsnp266/2584 8. AUS210 (accessed 29/09/2007) being unfaithful. Ray Dirks and the Value Funding Scandal

12. (accessed 29/09/2007)

10. The Woman CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT, July 1976, Page 11, “Equity Financing: The Profession Reacts


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Topic: Internal control,

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