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Carbon in its different forms continues to be known since olden times in the form of soot, charcoal, graphite and diamond jewelry. Its name comes from a Latin word carbo which means a lot. Ancient nationalities did not understand, of course , why these substances had been different types of the same factor. Let us explore the versatile nature of carbon.

Functional Nature of Carbon

But what makes Carbon this kind of interesting factor can be immediately attributed to their two one of a kind properties, we. e. tetra-valency and catenation. It is because of these properties that the element has the ability to form a large number of compounds. Not simply is carbon dioxide the fourth the majority of abundant aspect in the universe, it has to date more than 3 million chemical substances know to us until date. Here i will discuss a more deeply understanding of how these exclusive properties of tetra-valency and catenation, cause its remarkably versatile mother nature:

Tetra-valency of Co2

Carbon dioxide has the atomic number of 6th, meaning every carbon atom has a total of 6 electrons. Two are in the completed internal orbit, although four electrons are found in the atoms outermost orbit. This basically signifies that carbon features four valence electrons (outer electrons that are available for forming bonds to atoms). For this reason arrangement in the atoms orbits, carbon is referred to as tetravalent. The carbons several valence electrons can be shared by different atoms (that have electrons to share), thus creating what we call covalent bonds (shared electrons bonds). The carbon dioxide atom has the ability to form a bond with other carbon dioxide atoms to develop covalent provides forming extended strings of carbon atoms, bonded to one another like backlinks in a string. Silicon (Si), another element in group 16 of the regular table, has four valence electrons and may make significant molecules named silicones. Although due to its larger atomic quantity (in comparability to Carbon), its atoms are too large to fit together into because great various molecules while carbon atoms can. Why is carbon one of a kind is its ability in forming covalent bonds which are very strong in nature. The tiny size of the carbon atom makes the substances of Co2 exceptionally stable. Hence carbon as a feature has the ability to contact form a variety of stable compounds, which will exist readily in nature. Example: saturated hydrocarbons just like Propane and Ethane.


The linkage of atoms of the same elements to create longer string is called CATENATION. Carbon due to the tetravalent character has the exceptional property to form bonds to atoms of carbon developing a long sequence. Because of its home of catenation, carbon can build aStraight chainBranched chainCyclic ring. The astonishing compound-forming ability of the component comes from the capability of it is atoms combine to each other not only in straight restaurants but in complicated branchings, like the branches of a tree. They can join in a head-to-tail buildings to make bands of carbon dioxide atoms. The element offers practically no limit for the number or perhaps complexity of the branches and also the number of jewelry that can be attached with them, thus making it exceptional as there is no limit to the number of different molecules that can be formed. Carbon dioxide atoms can share not just a single electron with another atom creating a single connect, but it also can share 2 or 3 electrons, forming a double or double bond. This kind of characteristic of carbon permits it to form a high number of possible relationship combinations for different spots, making a wide array of different possible molecules.

What is important to remember is that a molecule that differs from a single atom or connect position, turns into a molecule of your different mixture with different physical and substance properties. Example: Methyl iodide (CH3-I) and Methylene iodide(CH2-l2), both change only in the single bond and twice bond element, but the houses vary noticeably and have diverse uses. Methyl iodide (CH3-I) is used being a pre-plant biocide to control pests like a pesticide, while Methyl iodide (CH2-l2) is used because an optical contact liquid, for determining the echoing index of certain gem stones.

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