Equipment: dropper, check tube, hot plate

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Chemical reagents: bromine, toluene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, acidified KMnO4, dichloromethane Technique

A. Bromine check

1 . 6 expending dry check tube were taken and were classed them A until Farreneheit 2 . 1ml of dichloromethane were include in each check tube

3. you ml of cyclohexane had been placed into tubes A and B, one particular ml cyclohexene were include in test tube C and D, 1ml toluene to try tube Elizabeth and Farrenheit 4. your five drops of bromine normal water were placed into each test tube

five. Test tube A, C and E were put into the dark; test tube B, Deb, and Farreneheit under the sun rays.

All the pipes were leaved for a couple of minutes B. Oxidation process Test with Acidic KMnO4

1 . 3 clean and dry evaluation tubes had been labelled

2 . 1ml cyclohexane, cyclohexene and toluene were placed into each check tube respectively 3. Handful of drops of acidic KMnO4 were include in each test out tube 5. The test tube were warmed in a normal water bath

five. Observation were recorded

5. Observation

Reaction with bromine water

Test| Observation| Inference|

1ml of cyclohexane + bromine drinking water + sunlight| Orange shade changes to colourless when confronted with light| Alkane present| 1ml of cyclohexane + bromine water + dark| No colour change| Alkane present| 1ml of cyclohexene + 3 drops of bromine water & shaking| Decolourisation of bromine water.

No color change| Alkene present|

Effect with aqueous potassium permanganate

Test| Observation| Inference|

2ml of cyclohexane + a couple of dropsKMnO4 & shaking| No colour transform with the addition of aqueous KMnO4| Presence of Alkane| 2ml of cyclohexene + 2 dropsKMnO4 + shaking| Colour changes to colourless with brown precipitate| Presence of Alkene|

Response with potassium permanganate and aromatic substance

Test| Observation| Inference|

1ml of toluene + 2ml of water down KMnO4 & shaking| Two layers shaped. Pale purple and deep violet color formed| Fragrant compound present|

6. Debate

Though all hydrocarbons contain carbon dioxide and hydrogen, they have different properties. The most typical property accustomed to distinguish these types of hydrocarbons is founded on their response with other substances. Fromm the first research when bromine water was added to cyclohexane and shaken and was also kept in the dark, not any colour alter was discovered which suggested presence of an alkane. Nevertheless this same blend was confronted with the sunlight there is an visible colour modify. These visible characteristics are extremely specific of alkanes which undergo alternative reaction under sunlight.

Likewise when bromine water was added to cyclohexene, the bromine water decolourised rapidly below room heat with advancement of hydrogen bromide gas which mentioned the presence of an alkene because they undergo addition reaction underneath these circumstances. In the second experiment when drops of KMnO4 answer was included in cyclohexane and shaken there was clearly no observable reaction which will indicated arsenic intoxication an alkane as alkanes are unreactive towards oxiding agents.

However when the same drops of KMnO4 solution was added to cyclohexene, there was a decolourisation with the KMnO4 remedy colour which can be characteristics of alkenes because they readily oxidised at space temperature. Inside the final test, aqueous potassium permanganate was added to toluene which formedtwo layers of colour. A pale violet colour produced above a deep purple colour displaying the presence of perfumed compound


SGS 1054


Practical a couple of

Result of alkane, alkene & alkyne


ID: 012013O50899

Programme: BBI


Sensible 3 SGS 1054

Title: Category of alcohols

1 . Aim:

Sort primary, supplementary and tertiary alcohols.

installment payments on your Apparatus: dropper, test pipe, test tube rack

three or more. Chemical reactants: n-butanol, 2-butanol, t-methyl-2-propanol, lucas reagent, concentrated H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7

4. Approach:

A. Oxidation Evaluation

1 . 3 small test out tubes was prepared in tube holder.

2 . 1ML of Na2Cr2O7 was prepared and poured in to labelled check tube. 3. Drop of concentrated H2SO4 was poured into check tube via 2nd stage (*precaution: managing of H2SO4 MUST be in FUME BONNET!. ) some. Drops of n-butanol was added and heated

five. The colour improvements was noticed

six. Observe the coloring changes.

7. End result was recorded

Lucas Test

1 ) Three little test pipes were ready as above.

2 . 0. a few mL of the test alcohol was included with each evaluation tube. several mL from the Lucas reagent was added. The mouth of test tubes was covered using a little cork. a few. Changes was observed

4. Steps were repeated to all three classes of alcohol.


Chemical| Lucas test| H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7 /H+|

t-methyl-2-propanol| Solution turns cloudy immediately| Orange shade solution maintained| 2-butanol| Answer turns over cast immediately| Green solution formed| n-butanol| Colourless solution formed| Turn to green solution|


1) The alcohols are classified as

Primary (1)

Supplementary (2)

Tertiary (3)

2) Alcohols undergo oxidation to offer aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids, or perhaps they can be dehydrated to alkenes. As one moves from major to secondary to tertiary alcohols while using same spine, the hydrogen bond strength, the hot point, as well as the acidity commonly decrease.


SGS 1054


Practical a few

Subject: Classification of alcohols


ID: 012013O50899

Programmed: BBI



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Topic: Test tube,

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