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EFFECTS AND DISCUSSION

Isolation, identification and frequency of fungi linked to infected lilium with underlying and light bulb rot

200 and thirty-seven fungal isolates belonging to five genera and nine species were recovered from infected lilium exhibiting root and bulb corrosion symptoms gathered from different fields located at Qaluobia Governorate. The isolated disease were identified as Aspergillus niger Tiegh (3 isolates), Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld (10 isolates), Farrenheit. oxysporum Schltdl. (100 isolates), F. roseum Beck (20 isolates), Farreneheit. semitectum Beurk (11 isolates), F. solani (Mart. ) Sacc. (16 isolates), Pythium spp. (Pringsh. ) (45 isolates), Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (30 isolates) and Rhizopus arrizhus Fischer (2 isolates). Data in table (1) indicate that one of the most dominant fungi were N. oxysporum (42. 14%), then Pythium spp. (18. 99%), R. solani (12. 66%) and Farrenheit. roseum (8. 44%). In the mean time, Rh. arrizhus recorded less frequency (0. 84%). These types of results are in agreement with those obtained by Hilal et ‘s. (1992), Wright (1998) and Ciampi ainsi que al. (2009) who identified that twenty percent of the separated fungi by calla bulbs was Fusarium solani (Mart. ) Sacc. and 80% was F. oxysporum Schltdl. On the other hand, Mordechai-Sara et ing. (2014) reported that tea leaf chlorosis, wilt, root and bulb decay of lily plants produced in commercial greenhouses in Israel are predominantly due to Rhizoctonia AG-A, Pythium oligandrum and Fusarium proliferatum. Also, Lakshman ou al. (2017) stated that eight yeast isolates were recovered coming from necrotic roots of Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White) and cultivated in a discipline located at the U. T. Pacific Northwest. The eight fungal isolates discovered by sequencing and molecular phylogenetic studies based on their particular ITS rDNA region. Five isolates had been identified as Fusarium oxysporum, two as Farreneheit. tricinctum, and one because Rhizoctonia sp. AG-I.

Solated fungi, i. e. oxysporum, Farreneheit. roseum, Ur. solani and Pythium spp., infecting lilium was decided under greenhouse conditions. Fig. (1) implies that F. oxysporum (31. twenty-five and 37. 50%, 35 and over 8 weeks after sowing, respectively), and then Pythium spp. (18. 75 and thirty seven. 50%, 40 and 60 days after planting, respectively), was the most virulent ones. Farrenheit. roseum (18. 75 and 25. 00%, 30 and 60 days after planting, respectively), followed by L. solani (12. 50 and 25. 00%, 30 and 60 days following planting, respectively), was the lowest ones. These results are in agreement with those acquired by Hilal et al. (1992), Schineider et al. (2001), Elewa et ing. (2001), Pursue (2005), Palmero et ‘s. (2014) and Mordechai-Sara et al. (2014) who reported that synthetically inoculated lily plants with each of R. solani AG-A, P. oligandrum, N. oxysporum and F. proliferatum resulted in chlorosis on low leaves seven days after inoculation. Eight several weeks later, symptoms became more serious and combined with wilting.

Web host range

Two trials were performed to test the ability of the tested fungi, i. e. Farrenheit. oxysporum, Farrenheit. roseum, R. solani and Pythium spp. to assail tulip, lilium, iris, calla and freesia either to bulbs in laboratory or greenhouse about developed vegetation:

Clinical bulb tests

The ability of the examined fungi to infect light bulbs of tulip, lilium, eye, calla and freesia was determined under laboratory circumstances. Data in table (2) show the tested fungi differed in their pathogenic potentialities to invade the bulbs of the analyzed plants. F. oxysporum was the most virulent one, led to 83. thirty-three, 91. 66, 83. thirty-three, 25. 00 and 83. 33% disease severity towards the tested vegetation, respectively. Pythium spp. and then F. roseum occupied the 2nd rank. L. solani was your lowest pathogenic fungus, offering 25, twenty-five, 16. sixty six, 8. thirty-three and 25% disease severity, respectively. Moreover, lillium bulbs were the most susceptible to the tested pathogens, especially F. oxysporum, staying 91. 66% disease intensity. Meanwhile, calla was the lowest susceptible one particular (Table 2). The large susceptibility of lilium light bulbs to illness may be as a result of characteristics of its lights, which have no dried out scale composition (tunica) intended for protecting the bulbs from your external elements. Also, lillium bulbs possess higher dampness content than any other geophytes, and in addition they have thicker and tasty, mouthwatering scales, therefore, it is possible for the pathogens to permeate into skin cells through the weighing machines (Sirin, 2011).

Greenhouse testing

Beneath greenhouse conditions, the capability with the tested disease, i. e. F. oxysporum, F. roseum, R. solani and Pythium spp. to infect tulip, lilium, iris, calla and freesia was determined. Info in stand (3) display that the four tested fungi differed within their pathogenic features to contaminate the tested bulbs. Farreneheit. oxysporum and Pythium spp. were one of the most aggressive fungi on every tested lights, since they provided the highest illness percentages. However, lilium and iris were the most predisposed ones, when calla light bulbs were the less prone ones. These results are in agreement with those attained by Wright (1998) and Ciampi ainsi que al. (2009). Elewa et al. (2001) reported that testing susceptibility of a few bulbous attractive plants to infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli revealed that freesia and iris had been the most predisposed hosts (100% infection), while lilium and tulip had been the lowest kinds.

Option against a number of pathogens pertaining to effective and sustainable disease control administration of a number of flower light bulbs (Lu and Chen, june 2006 and Luzzatto-Knaana and Yedidia, 2009). With this study the efficacy of two business bioformulations and two chemical substance inducers against lilium and calla main rot due to F. oxysporum was approximated by checking the percentage from the infected crops 60 days after planting. Data in desk (4) reveal that all the tested therapies significantly lowered the disease prevalence and increased the survived plants compared to the untreated control. The reduction in disease percentages in relation to the untreated control ranged from (9. 90 to 40. 00%) in lilium plants and from (15. 33 to 66. 66%) in calla plants. The increase in the survived plants went from 16. 50 to sixty six. 66% and from 15. 0 to 40. 0%, in lilium and calla, respectively. Biography cure-B and followed by Bio cure-F had been the best treatment options at significant level, while Chito Proper care was the most affordable effective one particular. These the desired info is somewhat in agreement with those acquired by Elmer (2006) who reported that Benzo (1, 2, 3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothiolic acid (BTH) protected corms of gladiolus (Gladiolus hortulanus) from strike with N. oxysporum farreneheit. sp. gladioli. Also, Liu et approach. (2008) reported that using cell postponement, interruption of Bacillus cereus stress C1L because soil drench 24 h before contamination with Botrytis elliptica decreased disease seriousness by (40%) in Lilium formosanum baby plants. Also, Sirin (2011) proved the potentiality of Big t. harzianum in controlling 3rd there’s r. solani about lilium plants under in vivo circumstances.

Integrated effect of a few commercial bio-formulations and substance inducers in lilium underlying rot beneath greenhouse circumstances

This research was done to determine the bundled effect of the tested inducers and biocontrol formulations, Bio-Cure”F and Bio-Cure-B on lilium root corrosion control. Data in stand (5) demonstrate that sinking bulbs of lilium in formula of the tested biocontrol agents and treated with any of the examined chemical inducers as garden soil drench right after planting considerably protected crops from Fusarium root rot. The integration among P. fluorescens and the tested inducers was far better than the usage between To. viride as well as the same inducers in relation to the disease incidence proportions. Potassium silicate in combination with G. fluorescens was your most effective treatment, which ended in the lowest disease incidence percentage, being thirty-one. 25% (Table 5). These kinds of results are in harmony with those received by Mishar et ing. (2000), Abdel-Monaim (2008), Kidane, (2008), El-Mohamedy et ing. (2014) and Khalifa et al. (2016). Elmer (2006) evaluated the efficacy of pre herb treatments of gladiolus corms with mixtures of acibenzolar -S methyl (ASM) and biological or perhaps chemical fungicides for reductions of Fusarium corm get rotten. He identified that corms treated with ASM produced 48% even more marketable bloom spikes than untreated corms and the worth of the region under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was reduced by simply 12%.

However , chemical substance fungicides Medallion Reg 50WP (fludiozonil) and Terranguard TM 50WP (triflumizole) reduced AUDPC by 27% and 23%, respectively, and none in the biological fungicides were successful. Improved flower resistance to illnesses by silicon (Si) applications has been reported for different plants. Because of pathogenic fungi enter the number through the skin cell wall, Si transferred in these surfaces may become a mechanised barrier. Lately, research prove that the production and accumulation of antifungal phenolic compounds such as lignin and activation of defence related enzymes, including chitinase and 1, 3-glucanase may also be included (Smith-Linda et al., 2005). On the other hand, disease causing symptoms of Fusarium wilt can survive in the soil in a dormant state for many years by simply forming resilient spores called chlamydospores. Just like many other pathogenic soil in the mind fungi, to be able to infect grow roots, all their dormant devices must be stimulated by substances present in seeds and root exudates. Without the release of such stimulatory molecules, in many instances, root infections hardly happen (Kidane, 2008). Also, si may decrease or wait spore germination and fungal growth indirectly by minimizing amino acid and starch development, which promote fungal growth (Takahashi, 95 and Kidane, 2008).

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