Carbon Dioxide

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Nano Debris used:

  • Zinc Oxide
  • Titanium Oxide
  • Biodiesel used:

  • Calophyllum inophyllum (100% bio diesel)

Parent rapsölmethylester preparation:

Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester is extracted from dried seeds by way of esterification process.

The mixture consist of 95% of methyl liquor and five per cent of sulphuric acid is mixed with Calophyllum inophyllum in a molar rate of of sixteen: 1 . After many iterations of heating system it is identified that heating the blend for 45min in 60oC.

To reduce the essential fatty acid in bio diesel sodium hydroxide alkalinity is added as a catalyst. The optimum proportion is found to be 6th: 1, 1% weight concentration of salt hydroxide by 60oC. The methanol content has been eliminated by heat.

Finally 85% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel was achieved.

Nano molecule solution prep:

Piccolo particles will be studied underneath SEM and it is found to get smaller than the nozzle diameter. So it is selected as it won’t affect the fuel flow. Nano fluid is actually a mixture of Piccolo particles and distilled normal water. The smooth was made by simply ultra-sonication method at a frequency of 50 to 70 kHz for half an hour. The Nano fluid are made in two different concentrations 50ppm and 100ppm. The fluid colour is deemed white in all four cases 50ppm of zinc oxide and titanium oxide and 100ppm of both Nano particles.

Rme emulsion preparation:

The Nano fluid was mixed with the father or mother biodiesel (Calophyllum inophyllum) and Nano emulsion was formed. The emulsion consists of 93% of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel, five per cent of Ridotto fluids, and 2% of Span-80 by volume. The four fuels were known as as CIME-Z50, CIME-Z100, and CIME-T50 CIME-T100 depending upon the Nano liquid mixed in the emulsion. The samples had been kept undisturbed in a shut down container for three days and there was not any phase parting in the powers. Cetane number is between your bio diesel powered and the diesel-powered. Calorific benefit was located to be lower than the rapsölmethylester.

Performance Features:

The fuels happen to be tested pertaining to performance characteristics such as braking mechanism thermal effectiveness, brake specific fuel usage and brake pedal specific energy consumption.

It was noticed that Titanium oxide executes better than zinc oxide as an oxidizing catalyst.

BTE BSFC BSEC Release Combustion

Diesel Better than different bio powers Lowest of all Lowest coming from all Emission of HC and CO is somewhat more than all Incomplete burning

CIME Most affordable among all powers Highest of all Highest of Lower HC and COMPANY than Diesel powered Higher fresh air than diesel powered so better combustion

CIME-Z50 Better than CIME

lesser than CIME-Z100 Lower than CIME

Greater than CIME-Z100 Below CIME

More than CIME-Z100 Reduced HC and CO than CIME Bigger oxygen than CIME thus better combustion

CIME-Z100 A lot better than CIME-Z50

reduced than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z50

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z50

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower HC and COMPANY than CIME-Z50 Higher oxygen than FA?TE so better combustion

CIME-T50 Better than CIME-Z100

Lower than CIME-T100 Lower than CIME-Z100

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z100

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower HC and CO than CIME-Z100 Higher air than CIME-Z so better combustion

CIME-T100 Better than CIME-T50

Lower than Diesel powered Lower than CIME-T100

Higher than Diesel Lower than CIME-T50

Higher than Diesel Lower HC and COMPANY than CIME-T50 Higher o2 than CIME-Z so better combustion

Hydrocarbon emission is deemed the least (0. 225g/KW-hr) in diesel about 5 Bar of BMEP and in CIME-T100 the least (0. 075g/KW-hr) is found to be around three or more. 75 Tavern. It is also discovered that due to complete oxidation process CO2 release is more in CIME-T than any other fuels. The faster oxidation property causes higher NOx emission than diesel but also in nanoparticle emulsions the presence of normal water reduces the NOx release than FA?TE. Smoke release is reduced in CIME fuels than Diesel due to full combustion of fuel.

Combustion Characteristics:

Due to existence of nanoparticles with water causes higher latent high temperature of vaporisation leading to longer time for vaporisation increasing the fuel accumulation in side cylinder therefore increasing the height pressure in cylinder than pure FA?TE fuel. The fuel obtaining accumulated burns up at a time publishing higher warmth release price than diesel. Due to the higher cetane amount the combustion delay period is lowered.


It is found that the mixing of nanoparticles in rme increases the oxidation property and so decreases the emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Instead increasing the emission of carbon pada oxide. Arsenic intoxication water elements in emulsion causes bigger latent high temperature of vaporisation reducing the possibility of NOx release. It also provides almost the same amount of BTE, BSFC, BSEC to diesel.

It can be concluded that the nanoparticle emulsion of CIME is a great alternative intended for conventional diesel which emits lower the harmful fumes.

It includes also proven increased activities when compared to pure CIME gasoline.

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