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To be able to arrive at a clearer watch of Christian counseling, this paper investigates the comparison between secular and Christian counseling. It begins which has a biblical word study to ascertain a basis for Christian counseling. What counsel, comfort and ease, and knowledge are examined in both Old and New Testament. The Biblical view of counseling is compared and contrasted while using secular perspective. Relevant honest considerations happen to be examined, especially related to the _Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Companies, Inc.

, _ 2001 case. The paper proves with a dialogue regarding upcoming endeavors in professional counselling including the right way to integrate the very best Christian and secular methods.

Christian counseling continues to be difficult to specify because there are two distinct types of counseling: psychic counseling and mental health counseling (Bufford, 1997). Therefore, there are many approaches for the practice of Christian counseling that range from the integrationist for the nouthetic position, which has manufactured identifying exclusive features of Christian counseling a fancy task. Consultants of the nouthetic approach declare thattruth can easily be found inside the Bible, most counseling models must be entirely from the Holy book, and virtually any integration of psychological ideas must be refused.

The integrationists state that God discloses his real truth universally. Hence, they accept and make use of both the techniques and the hypotheses of psychology with Scriptural truth to aid their clientele heal (Carter, 1999). Noticing the need for the two spiritual therapies and mental health counselling, Bufford (1997) defined seven distinctives of Christian therapies. Clinton and Ohlschlager (2002) proposed delete word Christian therapies that they describe as a paracentric focus that seems to better convey the essence of Christian counseling.

In view of this effort to define Christian counseling, there may be still much diversity of practice amongst Christian counselors. In an effort to understand the biblical landscapes of therapies, and produce a more distinctive picture of what is and is not biblical counseling, anything study over a variety of advice terms is usually presented from this paper. Subsequent, the conclusions from the phrase study are compared to the specialist views of counseling which includes an study of relevant honest considerations. This paper will conclude with a discussion regarding future endeavors in professional guidance.

Biblical Words and phrases Related to Guidance

In this section, a word research was conducted to understand the biblical landscapes of therapies. The words lawyer, wisdom, and comfort had been researched by first using the _Strong’s Exhaustive Cha?ne of the Bible_ (Strong, 1996). The range of situations in which these principles were used in the Old and New Testaments were researched applying Richards’ (1985) _Expository Dictionary of Scriptures Words, _ Vine’s (1940) _Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, _ and the _Baker’s Evangelical Book of Biblical Theology_ (Elwell, 1996). Several Bible commentaries were used to illustrate how these concepts were used in the and the New Testaments.


The Hebrew words that best communicate “to counsel or “to advise are ya`atsand its derivative `etsah. Both words mean tips, counsel, goal or prepare. In the Outdated Testament, these types of words are used to describe both the counsel of God and the counsel of man. Ya`ats is used 80 times inside the King James Version (KJV) of the Older Testament and `etsah is utilized 88 instances to convey the idea of counsel or perhaps advice (Blue Letter Holy book (BLB), 1996-2008). When ya`ats and `etsah are used as human counsel, it is usually in the context of counsel getting given to nobleman (1 Chronicles 13: one particular; 2 Stories 25: 17). Proverbs suggests that one should seek out the suggest of many (Proverbs 11: 16; 15: 22) because people and their lawyer are both fallible. However , God’s counsel is infallible, firm, and purposed (Psalms 33: 10-11) which can be conveyed as such in the Old Testament the moment ya`ats and `etsah are used. (Richards, 1985).

In the New Testament, rond comes from the fundamental word boulomai which means “to will.  Bouleuo is used 8 instances in the New Testament and will mean “to take suggest, to resolve (Vine, 1940). The root phrase boule means “to will or “to purpose the moment God may be the context. It is derivative, bouleuo, means “to take counsel, to resolve and together with boule is utilized 20 instances in the Fresh Testament. Like the Old Legs, boule is employed both to show the counsel of The almighty (Luke several: 30; Serves 2: 23) and the counsel of man (Ephesians 1: 11; Hebrews 6: 17). The substance symbouleuo identifies counsel considered together (John 11: 53). One other expression used in the New Testament that communicates “to counsel can be gnome. While boule can be counsel due to determination, gnome is used since judgment, opinion, or lawyer as a result of understanding (2 Corinthians 8: 10). Gnome is employed 9 times and symbouleuo is used five times (Vine, 1940).

_Old Testament usage_. Both equally God’s suggest and man counsel will be reflected with the use of ya`ats and `etsah inside the Old Legs. The situations of Absalom in Samuel 17: 11-21 and Rehoboam in 1 Kings doze: 1-15 demonstrate how ya`ats is used pertaining to human lawyer and advises some plan of action to deal with a particular situation. Finally, both Rehoboam and Absalom choose a intervention, but there is absolutely no certainty in human ideas. However , excellent counsel can be found in God’s plans (Richards, 1985). Psalms thirty-three: 10-11 declares, “The Master foils the plans from the nations; he thwarts the purposes of thepeoples. However the plans from the Lord stand your ground forever, the purposes of his cardiovascular through almost all generations (NIV). God’s lawyer is inerrant, sufficient, and unchangeable and is also at the center of Christian therapies.

_New Testament usage. _ The New Legs depicts the different ways in which man counsel has. Symbouleuo is often used when advice is given by a single person to another and is also usually in comparison with plots against Jesus or the early chapel (Matthew twenty six: 4; Works 9: 23). Gnome can be used in an example of sound advice based on maturity and knowledge given by Paul to the Corinth church (2 Corinthians 8: 10) and boule is utilized in the appear advice provided by the very esteemed instructor of the Pharisees, Gamaliel (Acts 5: 33-39). Although Gamaliel gave helpful advice, it was not really tested by standard of God’s word. Yet, Our god used Gamaliel’s advice to provide a required respite towards the young chapel (Guzik, 2001, Acts 5, D. 2). The inconsistent advice provided by man contrasts the immutable counsel of God. His truth is the primary source through which Christian consultants test all counseling methods, techniques, and principles to be able to offer appear counsel with their clients.


Naham is the Hebrew word most often translated “to give comfort in the Old Legs. It is utilized 108 occasions in the Old Testament. Often times naham means “to console (Psalms 71: 21; Isaiah 49: 13). Its type, tanchuwm, means consolation (Job 15: eleven; 21: 2) and is translated 5 times. Other meanings employed in the Old Testament are support, relief, extravagant, and exhort. The last 26 chapters of Isaiah express God’s comfort (Isaiah forty five: 1) plus the future promise of the Redeemer (Baker, 1996).

In the New Testament, the words parakaleo (verb) and paraklesis (noun) originate from kaleo meaning “to phone,  and para that means, “alongside of.  Parakaleo means “to call to one’s area or to invite to their aid, but this phrase and its different forms can mean many other things. This phrase group could be translated while invite, phone, exhort, beseech, encourage, call, instruct, comfort, and console. Parakaleo is found 109 occasions in the New Testament. Eight of the NIV’s 17 translations of this word group meaning “comfort arefound in a couple of Corinthians you: 3-7. During these passages, Paul addresses The lord’s comfort in times of trouble.

_Old Testament usage_. Jerusalem is discouraged over the announcement regarding the coming Babylonian conquest and future exile. In Isaiah 40: 1-2, God tells Isaiah to “comfort, convenience my people (NIV) and speak tenderly as you ease and comfort. The people of Jerusalem had been broken-hearted and needed comfort. God offered that convenience through Isaiah by educating him of talking comfort, virtually “speak towards the heart (Guzik, 2006, Isaiah 40, A. 1 . c. i). The aim of the beneficial process is always to restore the broken-hearted person to a expereince of living.

Clients must believe that healing is possible, but counselors need to first comfort and ease their anxious souls (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002). The process of change begins with the Christian counselor speaking tenderly to his or her clients’ hearts and reassuring them of The lord’s omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence. Healing commences when a perception of enjoyment encouragement grows from with the knowledge that God knows everything, is in control of every thing, is properly good, which is _on my personal side_ (Johnson, 2003).

_New Testament utilization. _ Clinton and Ohlschlager (2002) suggested a Paracentric focus that describes the Christian counselor as single-mindedly focused on Christ and the consumer. In two Corinthians you: 3-7, Paul models this idea. Paul’s life is not on dedicated to himself, but on the Master and on others. Paul starts his letter to the cathedral in Corinth praising Our god for his mercy and comfort (2 Corinthians you: 3). Paul uses the Greek expression paraklesis that expresses a comfort that strengthens, motivates, and helps a single deal with distressful times.

In verse 4, Paul talks about that Our god “comforts us in all the troubles, so that we can ease and comfort those in a trouble with the comfort we all ourselves have obtained from God (NIV). Paul is grateful that they can experience The lord’s comfort during times of trouble and use that have to help and comfort those in related circumstances (Guzik, 2001, 2 Corinthians, A. 2 . a. i). In a similar manner, the Christian counselor, yielded to the Ay Spirit, can meet the client at his / her point of need, and begin to create a good working cha?non (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002). The broken-hearted can be comforted, the weak can be backed, the discouraged can be prompted, and the misdirected can be well guided (1 Thessalonians 5: 14).


The fundamental word group expressing the concept of wisdom comes with chakam as well as its derivatives chokmah and chokmowth. Together they will occur more than 150 instances in the Outdated Testament. This kind of word group can mean to be skillful, to instruct, or to be prudent. Biyn and sekel are also carefully related and generally means understanding or discernment. Biyn can be used 170 occasions and sekel is used 18 times inside the Old Legs. Throughout the Older Testament, wisdom is indicated in godly living that is certainly most showed in the book of Proverbs (Proverbs 2: six, 9-10, 12). Wisdom may fit into two categories. Sensible wisdom, which is usually present in Proverbs, handles the issues associated with an individual’s life, such as family members relations (Proverbs 22: 6) and personal sector (Proverbs eight: 15). Reflective wisdom is targeted on theological issues, such as the battling of the blameless Job plus the meaning of life in Ecclesiastes (Elwell, 1996).

The Greek phrase sophia is definitely the word that expresses knowledge in the New Testament. Sophia is translated 51 occasions, and is targeted on the same practice of godly living while described inside the Old Legs. The different is in 1 Corinthians 1-3 where Paul compares the wisdom of men to the “hidden wisdom of God or The lord’s plan of salvation. Different words used are sunesis which means understanding or understanding (Mark 12: 33) and phronesis that may mean knowledge or discretion (Luke 1: 17; Ephesians 1: 8). Sunesis is used seven occasions and phronesis is used two times in the Fresh Testament (BLB).

_Old Testament Usage. _ In Ecclesiastes, Solomon displays how intelligence must be used when teaching or perhaps counseling those who are suffering. In Ecclesiastes 12: 8-14, Solomon focused on instant needs of the people (vs. 8). This individual “sought to learn acceptable words: and that that has been written was upright, actually words of truth (Ecclesiastes 12: 9-10; KJV). Solomon understood that divine intelligence would be required to respond to the needs of the people (1 Kings a few: 5-14). This individual also recognized that he or she must offer truth found in Scriptures to will direct them towards health and fitness (Ecclesiastes 12: 10) to get “what good will appropriate words carry out us if perhaps they be not straight and phrases of real truth? (Henry, 1996). Solomon considered, sought, and used God’s Word to fulfill the immediate needs of the individual. This can be a essence of Christian counseling.

_New Testament usage. _ James displays Old Testament sentiments in the advice to appeal to God when ever one does not have wisdom (James 1: 5-7). James is not merely talking about understanding, but regarding the ability to discern right from wrong. Later, Wayne contrasts personal character contained in divine intelligence and characteristics that are destructive and not of God (James 3: 13-18). Wisdom that comes from God is usually “peace-loving, thoughtful, submissive, filled with mercy and good fresh fruit, impartial and sincere (James 3: 17). These characteristics should establish competent Christian counselors. The Old Legs and the New Testament stress the importance to appeal to God to get his keen wisdom.

A comparison of Biblical Views with Professional Views

It begins simply by identifying commonalities in function and procedure between Christian and secular counseling. Differences are identified by examining three different areas: Philosophy of life, guidance goals, and source of real truth. In the last section, findings are driven regarding the implications to long term counseling efforts based on the conclusions in the word examine, comparisons to professional therapies, and relevant ethical considerations.

_Similarities between Biblical and Professional Landscapes of Counseling_

_Code of Ethics. _ Christian guidance and secular counseling have much in keeping, more so at the same time than in the information. One area of commonality is definitely illustrated in the American Counselling Association’s (2005) _ACA Code of Ethics_ and the American Association of Christian Counselors’ (2004) _AACC Code of Ethics. _ Both integrity codes addresses basic ethical principles ” nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, faithfulness ” that form the construction for ethical behavior and decision making pertaining to the professional counselor (Meara, Schmidt, & Day, 1996). Both integrity codes start by addressing the primary responsibility from the counselor to _do simply no harm_ to the people they provide (ACA, 2005, A. some. a; AACC, 2004, 1-102). Both ethics codes as well address the counselor’s responsibility to “respect the dignity and to promote the wellbeing of clients (ACA, june 2006, A. 1 . a). Featuring verbal and written knowledgeable consent, making certain “the consumer reasonably knows the nature and process of counseling (AACC, 2005, 1-310), as well as respecting client diversity (ACA, 2005, C. 5; AACC, 2004, 1-101) are included in both integrity codes to shield the welfare of the customer.

_Common components. _ Christian counseling and secular therapies also reveal many prevalent elements within their approach. First, both counselling systems are goal-oriented. Although goals including spiritual maturity and discipleship are clearly distinctive to Christian counseling, many of the immediate goals, such as alleviation of depression, reduction of anxiety, and control over drug abuse are common goals in both secular and Christian counseling. Second, Christian and seglar counselors use many of the same strategies, techniques, and ways to offer hope to the counselee, build a solid therapeutic romance, develop competencies in cultural living, give support, and change destructive cognitive or behavioral patterns (Bufford, 1997). Lastly, successful counselors in both Christian and secular counseling are characterized by warmness, sensitivity, understanding, genuine concern, trustworthiness, and competence (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002).

_Differences between Biblical and Specialist Views of Counseling_

_Philosophies of your life (View of man). _ Everyone has a philosophy of life, a means in which a single views the earth. Generally, high-end counseling sights are man-centered (anthropocentric) and biblical counselling views happen to be God-centered (theocentric). The worldview of a counselor determines how he or she considers human nature, evaluates and assesses the client, and decides on treatment strategies (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002).

In secular therapies, the reason for mans existence plus the goals to get achieved happen to be centered after, and revolve around man. High-end counseling depends on theories affected by behavioral, humanistic, and existential believed, but all those theories include little to own client except theadvice that they can should care about and love themselves (Carter, 1999). These theories highlight a basic amazing benefits or a basic depravity inside the soul, and focuses on and what will make the individual happy, adaptable, and powerful. This is their basis to get self-evaluation. “Humanistic psychotherapy has long been hampered by the contradiction of encouraging unlovable selves to love themselves (Johnson, 2003, p. 84).

In contrast, biblical counseling is God-centered. Christian counseling does not place individuals at the center with the universe because humanism truly does. In Genesis, it declares that God is the inventor, and this individual created guy in his graphic and likeness to live and rule in a perfect globe (1: 26-2: 25). Despite the file corruption error of the fall season, man continue to bears the and likeness of The almighty and still provides authority in the world as dependent creatures who desire to have a romantic relationship with God and other people (Averbeck, 2006).

It is this kind of God-revealed concept of the nature of man that biblical counseling, both as a program and as a procedure of doing counseling, bases it is work. Christian counselors recognize that all biblical care supplying falls in the larger plans and functions of the Originator. It is comforting to know that in the midst of a contingent, capricious life, The almighty, the originator, is always right now there to meet every need and pour out his comfort for all who seek him (Johnson, 1997). Christian counseling presents what luxurious counseling simply cannot: “the father of compassion and the God of all comfort (2 Corinthians 1: several; NIV). As man pursuit of meaning and contentment, God comforts and heals.

_Goals. _ Though easing the suffering in the client is known as a goal in both Christian and high-end counseling, it is far from the ultimate aim of the Christian counselor. Almost all counseling software has goals of bringing about modifications in our counselee, whether they are within feelings, beliefs, thinking or behavior. The goals of your counseling program are typically determined by the philosophy of life organised. A man-centered viewpoint is going to yield desired goals that concentrate on the pain relief of enduring and the happiness of personal joy. Secular guidance holds this kind of views. The primary goals of secular therapies in treating clientele are to ensure that the client minimize anxiety, guilt, depression, anger and to attain personal delight, contentment and self-fulfillment. High-end counselors as well give counseleesmethods of self-assessment to help them still live life with minimal stress and hostility (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002).

Like the seglar counselor, Christian counselors strive to change actions and perceptions that will bring about happiness, contentment, and greater well-being; however , Christian counselling goes further than changing behavior and helping clients find pleasure (Bufford, 1997). The ultimate desired goals of Christian counseling in order to help the counselee experience intimacy with The almighty and maturity in Christ (Ephesians four: 20-24). Putting an focus on discipleship and introducing psychic disciplines inside the Christian counseling practice will help achieve these goals.

Even though both talk about similar thoughts in methods and theories, the practice of psychic disciplines can be uniquely Christian and is a key factor in achieving the goals of intimacy and maturity (Willard, 2000). Collins (1996) claims, “Helping that leaves the actual spiritual dimension ultimately offers something missing. It may stimulate good thoughts and help persons cope with anxiety, but it really does nothing to make people pertaining to eternity or perhaps help them your abundant your life here on earth (p. 15).

Though the supreme goals of Christian guidance are closeness with Goodness and maturity in Christ, the center of Christian counseling is the good news of Jesus Christ (Colossians 1: 26-27). The power of Christ makes alter, redemption, and new life possible. Inside the Great Commission rate, Jesus orders Christians to generate disciples also to teach these to how to live as disciples and encounter abundant lifestyle. The Great Percentage differentiates Christian counseling coming from secular counseling. The work of Christian advisors is unfinished until they may have helped the counselee put off the old personal and put for the new simply by teaching and training those to live like Christ (Willard, 2000).

_Source of truth_. There are much more than 400 different therapy versions available today. “Effective counselors scrutinize theories for proven efficiency and meet them to personal beliefs and realities about the nature of persons and change (Gladding, 2007, p. 190). Never prior to has it been so important to possess a source of complete truth. Christian counselors believe that the Holy bible is the authoritative word of God against which they can easily assess theirbeliefs, practices, suggestions, and actions. They believe that “all Scripture is God-breathed (2 Timothy 2: 16-17, NIV) and fully lets them for every good job. Thus, though both Christian counselors and secular counselors use many of the same counseling techniques, the Christian counselor does not make use of counseling approaches that are sporadic with biblical teaching.

Recent studies in therapeutic end result encouraged the present emphasis on an eclectic strategy in professional counseling. That is, most counselors today are employing various hypotheses and ways to meet their clients’ one of a kind needs. Whiston and Sexton (1993) concluded that a strong therapeutic relationship is usually significantly linked to positive client outcome. Suntan (2003a) reported that empirically supported remedies (ESRs) and empirically backed therapy associations (ESTs) that are specifically focused on a customer’s needs made the best therapeutic outcomes.

Just like Solomon (1 Kings 3: 5-14), it is vital that a Christian counselor become a biblically informed and dependable eclectic who have prays pertaining to the discernment needed to “fit the right remedy with the right customer at the most fortunate time and the correct stage of living (Clinton and Ohlschlager, 2002, l. 176). However , the Holy book is the respected source of real truth, and an efficient Christian counselor will evaluate the moral and spiritual top quality of every theory and method they use in the or her clinical practice.

_Ethical Considerations_

Value clashes between clients and practitioners are unavoidable, especially for Christian counselors working within a luxurious environment. Although Christian consultants may not always agree with the values with their clients, it is essential that they respect the rights of their clientele to hold a different sort of set of beliefs (Hermann & Herlihy, 2006). It is also necessary for Christian consultants to inform potential clients in writing, as part of the informed permission document, of their religious beliefs and values to avoid selected ethical and legal issues since described in the following courtroom case.

_Bruff v. North Mississippi Overall health Services, Incorporation., 2001_ is usually an interesting case that displays the difficulty counselors deal with when their valuesystem and religious values conflict with the client’s showing problem. In 2001, the usa Court of Appeals “upheld the job termination of a counselor who wanted being forgiven from guidance a saphic girls client in relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted together with the counselor’s religious beliefs (Hermann & Herlihy, 2006, s. 414).

This case illustrates equally legal and ethical issues related to benefit imposition and conflict of values between client and counselor. The American Counselling Association’s (ACA, 2005) _ACA_ _Code of Ethics_ declares that advisors need to be “aware of their own beliefs, attitudes, values, and actions and avoid impacting values which can be inconsistent with counseling goals (A. four. b). Dealing with clients whom hold several values could be challenging pertaining to counselors. It can be especially challenging for Christian counselors if those values challenge their particular religious principles and philosophy. However , advisors must respect these different values of clients and take care not to impose all their values inside the counseling marriage (Hermann & Herlihy, 2006).

This case features particular significance for Christian counselors who also find it difficult to reconcile their religious values concerning certain consumer issues. It is crucial for Christian counselors to include Christ and incorporate Christian principles in the therapy procedure. However , Christian counselors’ principal responsibility should be to “uphold the inherent, God-given dignity of every human person (AACC, 2004, 1-101). Because it is unrealistic to assume that advisors will not integrate certain benefit orientations to their therapeutic techniques and methods, Christian counselors have an moral duty to clarify their very own assumptions, key beliefs, and values while using client through the intake treatment. “It is vital to be open up about beliefs but not coercive, to be a skilled professional but not a missionary for a particular idea, and at the same time in all honesty enough to identify how a person’s value obligations may not promote health (Bergin, 1991, l. 399).

Personal Applications

Current data indicates that no single theory or perhaps model effectively accounts for the complexity of human habit. Counselors will need to learn and apply a great eclectic mixture of therapy models and techniques to accommodate the complexity of these modern times. Christian counselors will have to consider biological, psychological, psychic, social, ethnical, economic, and environmental factors when assessing, diagnosing, and treating the initial needs in the client (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002). Adding spiritual direction into psychotherapy and therapies enables the counselee to pay attention to increasing understanding of God and facilitating surrender to God’s will (Willard, 2000).

The conclusions I possess made from what I have learned about the biblical views and professional views of therapies are there is a place for making use of both psychotherapeutic techniques and spiritual path in the therapies process, however it is essential to practice such incorporation in a ethical, helpful, and wise method. Christian consultants must make use of discernment the moment incorporating high-end theories and techniques into their practice and they must be smart when combining spiritual professions into the remedy relationship. The Bible is definitely our reference, it is the groundwork for real truth by which the rest is evaluated, and it is enough in what we have to instruct one other on how to live an abundant lifestyle (2 Timothy 3: 16-17; 1 Thessalonians 5: 13).

Christian advisors must refer to the Holy book to distinguish very good counseling coming from bad therapies. Both appropriate and unacceptable counsel is definitely illustrated in the story of Rehoboam, who have chose to disregard the advice (etsah) of the old counselors, and instead listened to his young and premature peers. Their very own counsel lacked a mindful examination of the case, and led to disastrous implications (1 Kings 12: 1-15). Wise Christian counselors happen to be careful to gather information and examine a scenario as they support their clientele. It is very important that Christian counselors consistently ask Our god for the wisdom (James 1: 5) to choose the godly path (Proverbs (19: 21).

The ultimate target of Christian counseling should be to facilitate the spiritualgrowth of clients, instead of simply improving symptoms and finding a quality to challenges. Integrating spiritual disciplines in to psychotherapy is usually an effective tool in attaining these desired goals in the remedy process (Tan, 2003b). However , as noticed in the _Bruff_ case, counselors must be careful not to enforce their spiritual beliefs or perhaps values around the client. The client’s autonomy must be respectable. Counselors must provide enough information relating to therapy for the client, and should include religious religious desired goals and surgery only when right informed permission is extracted from clients who have expressed interest in pursuing and participating in this sort of goals and interventions.

Effective Christian advisors must keep up to date of the latest and greatest information on ESRs and ESTs in order to provide the best and useful forms of psychotherapy and religious direction towards the client (Tan, 2003a). Additionally , Christian consultants should, while using consent of the client, integrate spiritual disciplines into psychotherapy. Effective Christian counselors’ primary focus can be on appointment the demands of the client. To meet these kinds of needs Christian counselors must first ease and comfort the broken-hearted with a comfort and ease (nacham, parakeleo) that units while imparting strength, to encourage and will be offering a expect a future (Isaiah 61: 1-2).

According to Grencavage and Norcross (1990), “the therapist’s ability to develop hope and enhance confident expectancies within the client (p. 374) was one commonality found in the qualities of effective counselors. Recent focus on ESRs shows the importance of the strong therapy relationship and is also in line with the final outcome that treatment occurs whenever we model the God of comfort and take pleasure in. “It is definitely ultimately God who is appreciate who gives wholeness and healing for the hurting people who we ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) to through psychotherapy and counseling, making use of the best ESRs and ESTs available, provided that they are in line with biblical, Christian truth, integrity, and morality (Tan, 2003a, 2003).


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