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Aristophanic invective against a rival dramatist: the écaille from the dropped Lemnian Ladies included in Henderson’s edition as number 382, attested to in two separate historic sources (suggesting it was deemed a particularly choice joke):
Since it is a juga made within the name in the tragedian Dorillus or Dorilaos – our company is not sure from the spelling, seeing that non-e of his operate survives as well as the pun in Aristophanes’ écaille is the main testimony to his function – Henderson finds a novel remedy for converting this untranslatable joke: “the women fence off their pussy shelleys” (Henderson 291). As a tip to the storyline of the dropped Lemnian girls, the sense of sexual pleasure being purposely withheld, such as Lysistrata, appears to adhere to this specific fragment: nevertheless indeed Matn (1987), in an important article on the make use of the mythology of Lemnos and Lemnian women within just Lysistrata, signifies that the living through comedy is full of references to the specific mythographic tradition. I believe, however , the larger context just for this particular écaille of the Lemnian Women has become overlooked – in its especially literary gibe, it details more toward the managing of Euripides specifically in the Thesmophoriazusai, and thus requires a nearer examination. I would really prefer to position this explode in the context of what we should know about the lost Lemnian Women, after which offer a sensitive suggestion about its presentation beyond the most obvious crude (and effective) laugh.
In beginning to situate fr. 382 in a larger interpretive context, we need to note that above half of the pieces from Aristophanes’ Lemnian Ladies, as collected in Henderson’s edition, handle matters of sex and gender, generally. If the Oxyrhynchus papyrus which will Henderson’s release collects while fr. 592 is also certainly part of the perform, it would undoubtedly suggest that it absolutely was a central obsession with the play, apparently expressed within a manner consistent with the other comedies with female choroi or protagonists (Lysistrata, Ekklesiazusai, Thesmophoriasuzai). This meets with the feeling of the title that can be reconstructed from the broken phrases and other extant texts. The third fragment ascribed in Henderson’s edition for the Lemnian Females states:
c? fr. 374)
they did apart with the guys who had got them children (trans. Henderson)
This generally seems to correspond to a particular degree with Herodotus’ consideration of the annexation of Lemnos by Athens under Miltiades, in which the mass-murder of males by females that is referenced in fr. 374 is usually recorded since having occurred not only when, mythically under King Thoas (referenced in fr. 373).
These Pelasgians then, residing after that in Lemnos, desired to take vindicte on the Athenians; and having full understanding also from the festivals from the Athenians, that they got fifty-oared galleys and laid wait for a women with the Athenians whenever they were keeping festival to Artemis in Brauron; and having transported off many of them from thence, they departed and traveled the world away residence, and taking women to Lemnos that they kept all of them as concubines. Now the moment these girls had kids gradually increasingly more, they made it their practice to teach all their sons both the Attic tongue and the manners of the Athenians. And these were not ready to associate with the sons with the Pelasgian girls, and in addition if any of them were struck by anyone of those, they each in a physique came to the rescue and helped one another. Moreover the boys claimed to have expert over the other boys and got the better of those easily. Perceiving these things the Pelasgians considered the matter; then when they took counsel together, a dread came more than them and so they thought, if the boys were indeed solved now to help one another resistant to the sons in the legitimate girlfriends or wives, and had been endeavouring previously from the initial to have authority over them, what could they do when they were grown up to be males? Then they identified to put to death the sons of the Athenian ladies, and this they did; as well as to them they slew their moms also. Using this deed and from that which has been done before this, which the women did when they murdered Thoas as well as the rest, who had been their own husbands, it has become a custom in Hellas that deeds of great cruelty ought to be called “Lemnian deeds. ” (Herodotus NI. 138)
Indeed Aristophanes’ fr. 386 seems to indicate a deliberate allusion to the same facts documented by Herodotus here, with reference to the ladies attendance on the rites of Artemis in Brauron. We must consider seriously, then, that Herodotus documents the notion of? As being pretty much proverbial for an excess of rudeness, yet it is essential that the cruelty here is specifically in the two instances one that stresses segregation of the sexes. (As Martin notes, it is unclear if the actual faith based rites which in turn recorded the Lemnian history was responsible for the emphasis in the history, or in case the actual background influenced the conduct with the women’s-only faith based rituals linked to the Lemnian misconception. ) The storyplot of Thoas which is shown by Herodotus as backstory to a more modern similar incident had been cured by all three of the extant tragedians: we might to some degree know what sort of misfortune might be created on the type of Aeschylus’ Suppliant Women, which also describes a mass slaughter of men by women, even though the archaic function of Aeschylus’ chorus for the reason that early disaster would most probably not have been followed by either Euripides or Sophocles. Matn also records that we have documents of for least four other experts of “Lemnian women” performs and will abide by Burkert’s summary that “Lemniads were a proper subject to get comedy” (Martin 101). In some sense, consequently , the Lemnian Women could have offered Aristophanes the perfect opportunity for revisionary imagination: with by least 3 tragic types, and two specific traditional occurrences of mass slaughter, the misplaced comedy may therefore believe to have recently been sprung by an excess. You are almost tempted to spot a Pythagorean rappel in fr. 372, suggesting perhaps the fact that recurrence of the same tragedy two times in the same spot, as well as the reversal with the slaughtered gender, might be explained by metempsychosis – for now it can be merely enough to make note of that the opportunity should not be eliminated that the or else forgotten Dorillus may have been dealing with this incredibly common misconception in his own tragedy to earn him the gibe in fr. 382. There are so couple of definitely-attributed fragments of the Lemnian Women that this would be not possible to rebuild anything like a storyline. But one way of reading Herodotus as a way into speculating about the nature of this kind of lost Aristophanic comedy is usually to note that whatever which turns into a byword pertaining to infamy will probably also get a subject intended for nervous or perhaps outrageous humor. To some extent, we might hypothesize a Lemnian Females in this sense that follows the pattern with the Thesmophoriazusai. In the end, Herodotus recorded the ancient origins of the actual Thesmophoria in the same Danaids from your Suppliant Women, and Burkert (1970) notes that “obscenity and blood” were characteristic of the actual rituals from the Thesmophoria, with legendary tales of guys who inadvertently trespassed staying castrated or tortured and subdued.
At some level there is one more underlying misconception of prepared bloodthirsty girls also within the mythography of Lemnos: Diodorus Siculus III. 54 records Myrina as the legendary Amazon . com queen remarkable for cure, although there is zero definitive identity of this Myrina with the Lemnian queen whom gave her name towards the island’s main city Without a doubt, it seems likely that there have been two Myrinas, and the Amazon online marketplace is meant to be identified while using same Myrina recorded in Strabo’s Location (XIII. three or more. 6) as having her tomb positioned in Asia Slight. Hypsipyle too is identified as an Amazon . com in several in the available sources, and indeed apparently in all of the cases what is stressed mostly is the notion of an all-female society. (One wonders perhaps the lost text might have produced the pun, obvious to us, between “Lemniai” and “Lesbiai” that is certainly lurking here. ) Regardless, Martin – who adduces much of the foregoing in his examination of the Lemnian motifs in Lysistrata can be willing to produce some attempt at reconstructing the lost enjoy:
When Aristophanes turns the mythic material of the Lemnian-women plot to political functions in the Athens of 411 B. C., he must use one set of partners to effect both splitting up and getting back together – you will find no Argonauts happening by, and hosting a “real” massacre will not make for extremely good comedy. In the misconception, then, you will discover no men on Lemnos while omen rule; inside the comedy, there both are and therefore are not guys: their “absence” initially can be described as relic theme, used freshly to twice as mark the theme of separating. (Martin 1987, 83-4)
Yet the notion associated with an all-female culture happened upon – which can be central towards the myth, and which Martin thinks must have been
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