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Role of leptin in autoimmune diaseases and
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Leptin is a peptide body hormone (16 kDa) secreted mainly by adipocytes, with a various physiological roles. Since its finding in year 1994, leptin provides attracted increasing interest in the scientific community for its pleiotropic actions
Protein hormone influences the neuroendocrine system at a lot of levels, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, gonadal, and growth hormone axes. However , leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI), but not with disease activity. Therefore , it is also possible that the interplay between these kinds of endocrine devices and the immune system response may have influenced, indirectly. Leptin also performs a regulating role in immunity, infection. Although leptin is well known for its regulatory effects on immune cells, the expression and release is definitely reciprocally underneath the control of distinct inflammatory stimuli
Protein hormone represents a web link between metabolism, nutritional position, and defense responses which is important for ideal functioning in the immune system. Protein hormone is a cytokine-like hormone with PR inflammatory properties linked to autoimmune illnesses. Moreover, there has been increasing data that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune illnesses. Leptin has been demonstrated to enhance defense reactions in autoimmune illnesses that are typically associated with inflammatory responses. Both equally high and low degrees of leptin may contribute to autoimmune diseases. Leptin has been investigated as a potential target for therapeutic development in treating autoimmune diseases
Additionally, leptin may activate monocytes, dendritic skin cells and macrophages and stimulate them to produce Th1 type cytokine. The cytokine-like strength characteristic of leptin is definitely implicative of its function in regulating immune replies. It has been proven that disease conditions of reduced protein hormone production will be associated with increased infection susceptibility
Leptin stimulates the production of reactive fresh air species
Leptin stimulates the discharge of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins
The functions may be the relationship between nutritional status and immune competence
They have reported that fasting brings about an improvement of clinical and biological actions of disease activity, which has been associated with a marked decline in serum leptin. Leptin likewise prevents apoptosis of To cells that normally comes with fasting through up-regulation of anti-apoptotic necessary protein bcl-xL by means of leptin receptors on lymphocytes. The leptin-induced metabolic pressure sets the basis for a great exaggerated immuno-inflammatory response to modified self or non-self, bringing about chronic inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, and autoimmunity in subject matter with risk factors
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