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The survival of virtually any population depends on multiple different factors, a combination of equally abiotic and biotic. With time, Emperor Polar bears have developed a cooperative conduct strategy that ensure the survival of individual polar bears and the populace itself. As a result of fast price heat is definitely lost in the Antarctic, a sole penguin is at likelihood of freezing to death. Polar bears huddle with each other in an attempt to maintain themselves nice, and can reach temperatures of 20?, inspite of the temperature of the environment achieving as low as -50? (Gammon, 2012). By huddling together, they will decrease their very own surface area to volume rate. A huddle of penguins has a limited amount in the surface area in the overall volume level open to the elements. A penguin that is isolated and alone has a larger surface area compared to their volume. Area is a essential aspect in the transfer of warmth. The larger the area area to volume proportion, the more temperature can be dropped through it. By setting up a huddle, penguins reduce the amount of heat they will lose to the environment due to the reduction of surface area.

For masse to be preserved in an ecosystem, there must be use of a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. Examples of biotic factors necessary for the survival of penguins happen to be fish, plancton and squid for meals, despite the fact they can last with out food for up to 100 days and nights. The most pivotal biotic component essential to all their survival can be other polar bears. These protect them from any kind of life threating abiotic factors in the environment, such as temp and wind. Isolated polar bears are more at risk of suffering from abiotic factors because of the larger sum of area that can be compromised. The polar bears on the outside band in the huddle will not be as greatly damaged as the sole penguin, as they have a smaller surface area open to the abiotic factors. The penguin’s least affected could be the inner polar bears as they have a very small area available. Huddling is a form of behavioural variation, where the penguins changed their actions to raised suit the environment. If a penguin was subjected to the harsh temps and breeze of the environment, it could produce a rapid decline in their body’s temperature, affecting their particular nervous program and bodily processes. The overexposure of the penguins in this environment causes the heart and respiratory system to get corrupted causing all their death. Homeostasis is a self-regulating process that enables animals to keep the optimal interior environment to get survival. (Encyclopedia Britannica, and. d. ) An remote penguin will have to increase it is body temperature to survive. Homeostasis boosts the body temperature by sending some text to the temp regulating center of the mind, the hypothalamus. Temperature pain in the skin send the message, the nervous system then delivers it for the effector, in such a case the penguins muscles. The penguin’s response is to shiver in order to make an effort to increase the bodys temperature. (ABPI, n. g. )

Nevertheless , overexposure to get an separated penguin may not be helped by the process of homeostasis as high temperature cannot be received as quickly since it is lost. (Mayo Clinic, d. d. ) This will trigger the remote penguins to die.

Experiment Design

The aim of this kind of investigation is usually to determine the effect varying security has on the heat loss of penguins. Test pipes will be used as a substitute for penguins in this test. The speculation is: as the security of the check tube lessens, the temp loss with time will increase. The isolated check tube will suffer heat the fastest.

Independent Varying: amount of protection

Dependent Variable: Heat change of water

Constant Elements:

Amount of water placed in each evaluation tube

Size of every test conduit

Time the test tubes were employed

First temperature with the water that was put in each check tube


  • 500ml beaker x2

  • Warm water

  • Test tube rack

  • Thermometer x3

  • Timer

  • Rubber bands x2

  • Test pontoons x 12-15


  • 14 test tubes were grouped jointly and properly secured with two rubber bands, 1 at the top and one at the end.
  • The band of test pontoons were put into a 500ml beaker.
  • The warm water was poured into the 14 evaluation tubes for the same level, also filling up the remote test conduit to the same level.
  • The 14 test out tubes had been transferred to a new empty 500ml beaker and the remote test pipe was placed in the test conduit rack.
  • A thermometer was placed in the isolated test out tube, the innermost evaluation tube and a evaluation tube for the outer ring.
  • The initial temperature was recorded.
  • The temperature in the test pontoons of normal water were noted every minute to get 10 minutes.
  • The change in temperatures from the primary temperature from the water was calculated and recorded.
  • The initial temperature for each test tube was 34 degrees Celsius. The plot on the graph that decreases in heat after some time the most may be the isolated test out tube storyline. The separated test pipe lost 27 degrees inside 10 minutes. The temperature of the isolated temperature plateaus for 7 degrees from six minutes. The exterior test tube lost an overall total temperature of 15 levels Celsius plus the temperature would not plateau. The central test tube lost the least sum of heat, only losing twelve degrees during the whole 5 minutes. The temp dropped steadily throughout the time period.


    The benefits obtained from this kind of experiment had been similar to that which was predicted. This particular placed in the isolated check tube symbolizing the separated penguin lost the most high temperature throughout the research. This is because with the increased exposure to the amazing environment in collaboration while using large area of the evaluation tube. The surface area of the isolated test pipe was much bigger than the volume of water within, that means more temperature could break free over time because of the large area to volume ratio. The on the exterior ring of the huddle dropped the second the majority of amount of heat. The least amount of heat was lost from the test pipe in the middle of test tube huddle. This was believed as the outer ring test tube contains a smaller area to volume level ratio than the isolated test out tube and a larger area to volume ratio than the central test tube. The central check tube misplaced the smallest sum of heat as a result of smallest surface area to lose heat from.

    Despite the effects that were gathered being believed before the try things out, there were multiple unexpected data points. It was not expected that the separated test conduit would level at several degrees. However , it was predicted for the isolated test tube to rapidly decline in heat and eventually plateau, but it really was thought this would happen at area temperature. The other two measured test tubes would not plateau, that has been also expected as these evaluation tubes saved in more high temperature.

    There are several different options from which randomly error may occur through the entire investigation. Some of those includes this particular in the test tubes has not been measured accurately with a calculating cylinder, although by statement. The try things out required water to be measured by vision rather than a cyndrical tube, as copying the water between your different containers would have meant a definite reduction in high temperature and would have significantly lowered the accuracy and reliability of the data. This remains an error as it is not known whether the quantity of normal water was the same in every single test tube. If every single test tube contained another type of quantity of normal water, the volume will not be precisely the same effecting losing heat. The second random error could have been the fact that temperature for the thermometer was read improperly. Due to several people in every single experimental group taking down measurements, people would have read the thermometer differently each time. This means the recorded temperature could have certainly not been the true value, greatly affecting the results from the experiment. A scientific error that could have potentially occurred could possibly be that the thermometer used was not correctly arranged. This means the results recorded would not end up being accurate, nevertheless the trend in the data might still be visible.

    There is only a very small sample size applied during this investigation. There were the particular isolated, exterior ring and central check tubes that were actually scored, and no repetitions were made. Because of these factors, the effect of random errors would be even more prominent and significant. In an experiment such as this, it is vital that it can be repeated and with a bigger sample size in order to decrease the amount of random problems. The more principles recorded and averaged would mean any outliers of the info would have a less significant impact. As there are no the case values in this experiment with out replicates were created, the accuracy and reliability and the precision cannot be discussed.

    One of the strengths of this experiment was your temperatures of each and every test pipe that were registered were completed with a thermometer with a quality of one. This implies the thermometer was accurate in examining the temperature of the water. A different one of the strengths of this exploration was that the experiment was carried out with each check tube at the same time and in the same environment. This kind of meant that the external factors affecting quality tubes will be affecting these people at the same price. There would be not any variation in temperature within the room so the evaluation tubes may not be significantly affected.

    However , inspite of the strengths of the experiment, there were also multiple weaknesses. Among the weaknesses is that the thermometer could have been go through differently simply by each person who was recording any results. This means the readings may not be true to the research, and would affect the outcomes and the conclusion. Another weak spot includes testing the water in each evaluation tube with no measuring cylinder. It was necessary for all the quantities to be the same in every test conduit, in order to get a precise result in regards to the rate when the heat was lost. With no accurate measurements, the amount of warmth loss would vary with respect to the different volumes. A third weak point was the thermometer not being arranged accurately enough to read the temperature to a specific level. This can be identified as a weakness as the real temperatures with the water may not have been shown in the outcomes. Conclusions can still be drawn, however , the values can be incorrect regardless of the trend from the data still being correct. The small sample size and lack of repeats in the research was one other pair of weak points that reduced the significance of the data. The result of unique errors was increased just for this. The most significant weakness of the entire experiment was that the test pipes in no way accurately represented just how penguins shed heat, if huddled or isolated. The layer of fat and feathers held by penguins insulates them from the cool, as well as the huddle formation, not represented well by glass pipes.

    One of the improvements that could have been designed to the analysis was to discover another substitute for a penguin other than a glass evaluation tube. The replacement apparatus would still need to be capable to work efficiently to gain results. Another improvement would be calculating the amount of water in the test out tubes which has a measuring cylinder. A third improvement would be using the same person to read the thermometer every time and record the data to acquire a more correct result. It might remove the possibility of random problem associated with thermometers. Testing the calibration in the thermometer might also be an improvement as it could take out the systematic error in the research. By tests the calibration with anything of regarded value, the accurate heat of the oceans can be documented.


    The benefits of the analysis effectively reflected the speculation, showing the ways in which the location of the test tube in the huddle affected the rate of heat damage. However , due to the use of evaluation tubes in replacement of penguins, it is not possible to see if this is certainly in fact exactly like the rate in which penguins do lose high temperature. The research was valid, as the results demonstrated the way temperatures is influenced when it comes to area and volume ratio. As a result of large amount of biology behind the losing of temperature as time passes, there were very little errors although carrying out from the experiment, representing the research as trustworthy. It is trusted because in the event the experiment were to be completed once again, the same results would be seen whenever the experiment was performed.

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    Category: Science,

    Topic: Surface area, Test tube,

    Words: 2290


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