Idea has many questions- Asking the right questions… From Greek phrase PHILO (Love) & SOPHIA (Wisdom) meaning lover of wisdom 5. PHYTAGORAS, a Greek Thinker, was the first to use the term Philosophy. * He mentioned that there are 3 types of man: a. lover of enjoyment b. fan of accomplishment c. fan of knowledge * the very last, according to him, is a SUPERIOR TYPE. * Intelligence here relates to the principles of things, the first source of all creatures. It handles an understanding for the meaning of one’s living and the significance of things about her/ him (Socio, 2007). The chief goal of intelligence is a primary understanding of fact as it relates to living an excellent life.
5. We might declare then, that wisdom great judgement about complex situations. Consequently, wisdom involves expression, insight, a capacity to learn from experience plus some plausible getting pregnant of the man condition (Buenaflor, 2009). Beliefs is a search for meaning and therefore intended simply for the logical beings.
This individual who has the why of things can easily bear almost any how…- Victor Frankyl Philosophy uses purpose to attain it is object. Whatever is one’s state anytime, whenever the girl with and whatever she does she will always be left philosophizing. Therefore philosophy is always present.
Philosophy- The science of all things by their initially causes while known by light of reason Beliefs covered all aspects of human knowledge. The early philosophers assumed that idea is the foundation of all learning in the prospect of a total universe picture and in the oneness of all truths- whether technological, ethical, faith based or visual. Philosophy because subject sought to provide if perhaps not all the answers the, the answers to at least the most ultimate and fundamental inquiries.
Why research Philosophy? Study regarding Philosophy is very important because it presents students the opportunity to explore the fundamental questions about human lifestyle and to observe exactly what thinkers in different periods have had about the fact of individual. Philosophy may help clarify our thoughts. The clearer a person considers the more she/he expresses himself/herself and more correct way of analyzing and making decisions about life.
It really is philosophy that digs in to the root reasons behind man’s concerns and finds the true alternatives and remedies to human being ills. Plato- The Philosopher King For what reason study Philosophy? Philosophy is among the best ways of enriching your life, even as that prepares you for life.
Philosophy’s critical expertise offer the primary protection against foolishness and falsehoods. Beliefs is one of the most practical topics in college or university. Logic helps the students inside the following areas: * Interpretation & Research * Abstract Reasoning 2. Research & Synthesis 5. Communications Branches of Viewpoint. * Logic- the science of correct reasoning * Epistemology- it deals with the origin and validity of human expertise * Metaphysics- it handles the study of creatures and the beginning of issues. * Theodicy- the study of Goodness in the mild of organic reason. (Philosophy of Religion) * Cosmology- the study of the universe from a philosophical viewpoint 2. Philosophical or perhaps Rational Psychology- the study of person not only being a thinking or sensing getting but as create of body system and heart and soul * Ethics- a philosophical study that deals with just how life needs to be lived plus the means of getting a important existence.
5. Aesthetics or perhaps Philosophy of Arts- deals with the philosophical study of arts and beauty. It answers problem like What is beauty? Idea can also be divided into the following twigs called Philosophies of Discipline * Viewpoint of Persons- it relates to the study regarding the pride of gentleman, truth, liberty, justice, love, death fantastic relationship with others and with The almighty. * Cultural Philosophy- that deals with the philosophical research of a society and its organizations. It is concerned in identifying the features of the best society as it deals with the study of relationships with the human person. * Beliefs of Science- This relates to the approval and objectivity of technological knowledge.
5. Philosophy of mathematics- The essence philosophy of mathematics is to provide an bank account of the characteristics and technique of mathematics and its importance. * Philosophy of Law- This branch of philosophy relates to the why’s of the law. It also should guide people’s actions in political community and thus protect standard interests or rights. 2. Philosophy of Education- This kind of branch of idea provides a philosophical understanding of the issues in education.
It deals with the different techniques of education and its particular effects in the learning from the human person. * Philosophy of Psychology- it handles everyday reflections on kinds thoughts and deeds and on the behavior more * Viewpoint of Religion- Study of God coming from a philosophical viewpoint * Philosophy of History- This branch of Viewpoint is an attempt to answer substantive questions working with such things as the significance or conceivable purpose of the historical operations and the elements fundamentally accountable for historical development and change. 5. Philosophy of Love- this branch relates to the meaning and value of affection in the human person. 5. Philosophy of Culture- This is actually the philosophical study of all facets of human lifestyle.
Its target is to interpret and transmit to long term generations the program of values. * Idea of Women- This is also called philosophy of feminism, which will refers to study regarding the legal and politics rights of ladies, as well as the romance between the people in terms of inequality, subordination, or oppression. Precisely what is the basic dependence on becoming a Thinker? – The faculty of wonder. – philosophy requests the question SO WHY? Where would Philosophy stems?
West- Greece East- China and India Factors that contribute to the development of Philosophy in Greece 2. Geography 5. Invention of Games 2. Invention of coins 2. Myths Reasoning Etymologically, Common sense is deduced from the Ancient greek language word Logike denoting a treatise upon matters pertaining to thought. The word was termed by Zeno the Stoic. St Thomas Aquinas defines Reasoning as the art that directs the reasoning method so that guy may obtain knowledge of fact in an orderly way, easily and without error. As skill, Logic may be the tool of sciences. The Scholastics regarded as it because “the skill of all additional arts” because it is used in every science and in every useful endeavor.
As science, Logic studies the logical properties involved in the action of knowledge including the logic of notions or perhaps concepts, the logic of judgement, the logic of reasoning plus the logic of science. Because science, Reasoning is a systematized body of logical facts and rules governing the habit of critical thinking and thinking. History of Logic Zeno the Stoic coined the actual name Logic.
This individual established the guidelines of argumentation to explain the nature of principles by using the Before and Posterior analytics of Aristotle’s logical works. This endeavor degenerated because of the ingenious rhetoric and subtle marketing of the Sophists. Socrates refuted the mistake by vindicating the value concepts in knowing reality. Escenario, the most distinguished student of Socrates, philosophized that truth is the same as the best, ideal fact. Aristotle remedied this problem.
He wrote six treatises on Reasoning known as the “Organon” He mentioned that ideas are mental operations that exist simply in the brain. He is viewed as the founder of research. Porphyrius wrote the kinds of Aristotle known as “Isagoge’ Boethius translated Aristotle’s Organon and wrote commentaries on the Isagoge. Avicenna and Averroes wrote commentaries of Aristotle’s Organon Thomas Aquinas wrote commentaries on the logical works of Aristotle Francis Bacon composed the “Novum Organon”.
This individual introduced the idea of Inauguration? introduction. John Stuart Mill developed Bacon’s “Novum Organon” Just lately, George Boole founded the New Symbolic Reasoning. Because of its limited scope of application their popularity dropped. Methods of Reasoning. * Inductive method- exactly where we can get hold of universal understanding by with the particular former mate.
Repeated experience of seeing falling bodies towards ground. We might induce that is common to any or all bodies. 2. Deductive- Once we proceed from universal expertise to particular cases ex girlfriend or boyfriend. Logic is usually divided based on the three functions of the brain. * Stress * Judgement * Reasoning Simple Apprehension It is the fundamental operation from the mind or perhaps “the mental processes with which we grasp the general that means of the thing without re-inifocing or denying anything about that. It is the fundamental operation of the mind leading to a idea; ex. “man” “dog” Wisdom It is the act of the head by which we all compare two concepts, both they agree or not.
If we put concepts with each other, the end result is named judgement or perhaps proposition. Ex. Man Laughters Reasoning Is it doesn’t act from the mind with which we derive new facts from previously assumed real truth. The mind combines several decision or offrande in order to arrive at a previously unknown view; it is referred to as syllogism.
Ex. All guys are strolling Cyrus is actually a man. Consequently Cyrus is walking. Mental Act External Sign Apprehension Term Judgement Proposition Thinking Syllogism Conditions. The term deduced from the Latin “terminus” is the extramental mark of an idea.
A term is an external expression of the idea. Way of doing something is mental expression of external objects. Reasonable properties of terms * Comprehension of the term- It’s the sum total of all the qualities as well as elements that comprise this is of the term; A outward exhibition of the essence with the object. Also, it is known as meaning. The understanding of pet is “sentient living materials substance”. * The Extension of your Term- It’s the sum total in the particulars that the understanding of a term can be used.
It is also called denotation at the. g. Recognized of the comprehension “sentient living material substance(animal) is birds, mammals, reptiles, birds, mammals etc .. The comprehension and extension of terms happen to be inversely related. The greater the comprehension the lesser recognized and vice-versa | Comprehension| Extension| Substance| substance| Mood, minerals, vegetation, brutes, men| Body| Materials substance| Nutrients, plants, brutes, men| Organism| Living material substance| plants, brutes, men| Animal| Sentient living material substance| brutes, men| Man| Rational sentient living materials substance| Men| Classification of Terms We. According to Extension Extension of Terms- is defined as house of a term by which such a term is used on other things.
Terms have 3 extensions namely Singular, Particular and General * Unique Term is usually an extension of term that stands for a single definite individual or group. It is accustomed to specify the person or group. It is quantified by: * Demonstrative pronouns- This, That e. g. this book, that boy 5. The article “the” connotes just one idea at the. g. the cup, the umbrella 5. Personal Pronouns- I, You, He, my own, yours, he, she. 2. Collective nouns- flock, tribe, team 5. Particular Terms-stand for a distinct part of the overall extension.
This really is applied to a given part of specific group. Particular terms have the following quantifiers 1 . ) Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives- Some, couple of, many, most, several, not every, etc . elizabeth. g. some people, most streets 2 . ) Use of Numbers- seven prospects 3. ) Articles “A” and “AN” give a particular idea at the. g. a saucer, an umbrella Universal terms- means every subject matter signified. This is how meaning is definitely extended with each and every person in the group.
The signs of universality are: 1 ) ) General Expression/Quantifiers- every, every, every, whatever, the person who, which ever, with out exception, everything, no, nobody etc . e. g. Ex. No gentleman is a great island; Every students of Rogationist College wear their homogeneous 2 . ) Universal Ideas- e. g. Tomorrow can be described as new working day; Dogs are certainly not cats 3. ) Articles or blog posts in the Widespread idea- at the. g. The book features pages; A snake is a dangerous monster II.
In respect to Meaning * Univocal- it indicates the same principle or fact, in (at least) two occurrences with the term at the. g. Elegancia Arroyo became the Director of the Republic of the Israel; Benigno Aquino jr. is a president in the Republic with the Philippines 2. Equivocal Term- The term is definitely outwardly or apparently the same but it suggests different principles or essences. E. g. left (left hand); still left ( gone); right (right hand) right (correct) 2. Analogous term- it conveys partly precisely the same and partly different in meanings ex. Head will not have the same which means in mind of the along with head of a man.
3. According to Quality 2. Positive in form, positive in that means e. g. life, proper rights, truth, * Positive in form, negative in which means e. g. murder, massacre, famine 2. Negative in form, unfavorable in that means e. g. immature, incompetent, dishonest 5. Negative in form, great in which means e. g. immortal, unblemished IV. In accordance to Relation * Compatible- those that can easily co- can be found in a subject examples: sensible and great; beauty and brain; wealthy and well-known; tall, darker and good looking; * Incompatible- those that cannot co-exist within a subject. They will exclude each other. There are 4 kinds of antagonico Ideas: * Contradictory- those that express an optimistic and adverse concept.
Contradictories are mutually exclusive such that the affirmation of one is the refusal of the other. Together, there is no third (middle) likelihood. Examples: legal-illegal; patient-impatient; literate-illiterate; valid-invalid 5. Contrary- the ones that express extremes belonging to the same class.
Among these concepts, there is a third (middle) floor. Examples: rich-poor; hot-cold; kind-cruel; high-low; beautiful-ugly * Privative- two compared ideas, one among which communicates perfection, plus the other their lack which ought to be possessed. Examples: sight-blindness; truth-error; hearing-deafness; good-evil 5. Correlative- two opposed ideas that carry mutual relation to one another in a way that one can’t be understood without the other. They suggest each other since one will depend on the different.
Examples: cause-effect; whole-part; husband wife; parent-child According to Object 1 ) ) Real- it expresses something that offers existential fact, whether positive or adverse. Examples: clearness, temperance, scandal, unemployment, couch, table 2 . ) Logical- it is applied as a conceptual device to facilitate learning. Examples: subject, predicate, classification, division, phyla, genera a few. ) Imaginary- it has no correspondence in reality but is only a mixture of the head.
Examples: Spider man, traveling by air carpet, darna, talking tree According to Comprehension 5. Concrete- the definition of is used expressing concrete concepts such as these perceivable by the senses or perhaps whose referent is real. Example: ball, desk, table, brilliant attorney * Abstract- The term is employed to express subjective concepts just like those understood by the head or whose referent is definitely intangible. The definition of denotes being, quality, quantity or relationship.
It means the property of any thing regarded as an entity by itself. Examples: humanity, dullness.
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