Bromobenzene goes through no effect for equally SN1 and SN2. This is because bromobenzene is extremely stable, and has allylic and vinyllic bromine, which is also really steady, and may not be a good nucleophile.

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Bromocyclopentane acts under SN1 and SN2, but it displays a faster reaction in AgNO3/ethanol reagent, that is SN1. This is because bromocyclopentane is extra bromine, and also have bigger steric strain, since it is a cyclic compound. The greater steric in a molecule, the harder it really is for the nucleophile to attack the leaving group (-Br) from the opposite edges, therefore , SN2 reaction is slower than SN1 to get bromocyclopentane.

Using this reaction, precipitation occurs to provide out AgBr in ethanol and NaBr in acetone.

Bromocyclohexane, however, shows simply no reaction in SN2 reagent, but nearly an immediate reaction in SN1 reagent. The reasons are very quite similar with bromocyclopentane above ” steric stress. As bromocyclohexane is larger than those of bromocyclopentane, the steric in bromocyclohexane is actually much to get the nucleophillic attack from your opposite area of the leaving Bromine.

In the end, just SN1 response could complete this nucleophillic substitution.

2-bromobutane undergoes a slow SN2 reaction, but shows an instantaneous result in SN1 reaction. Since 2-bromobutane consists of secondary bromine, both SN1 and SN2 could happen. The precipitate for this reaction ought to be NaBr and AgBr. However, 2-chlorobutane undergoes an even slower SN1 and SN2 reactions. This is really because bromine is actually a better leaving group than chlorine. Bromine is much larger in diameter, and less electronegative, too; for that reason making it easier to leave the alkyl group. The precipitate for this response is NaCl and AgCl.

The reaction of chloroacetone, by comparison is mainly SN2, because the effect in SN1 is quite slow. As chloroacetone consists of main chlorine, SN2 reaction is extremely favorable. In addition, the stereochemistry of this chemical substance helps the reaction go faster (nucleophile great from the reverse of leaving group). The merchandise for this reaction is the medications of NaCl.

1-chlorobutane can be slow in reaction with both, either SN1 or SN2. 1-chlorobutane has primary chlorine; theoretically it is available just for SN2 effect. But it also responded in SN1 ” just even reduced. The reasoning is the same as these; chlorine constitutes a hard-to-leave leaving group. The precipitates to get 1-chlorobutane in both reactants are NaCl and AgCl.

For t-butyl chloride, zero reaction occurred in SN2 reaction, but quick result looks in SN1 reaction. This is mainly because the leaving group, -Cl is a tertiary atom, making it limited for SN1 substitution. Furthermore, there is no carbocation rearrangement. The precipitate is AgCl.

Benzyl chloride reacts instantaneously with SN2 reagent and about several mins in the additional reagent, making NaCl in the acetone option and AgCl in the ethanol solution. Not the same as bromobenzene, benzyl chloride is consisted of a carbon in the middle the giving group plus the arene. This creates a part charge, ( on the co2 next towards the leaving group that has incomplete charge. With all the attack of nucleophile, the leaving group leaves easier than the one on bromobenzene. As -Cl in benzyl chloride can be primary halide, SN2 substitution is more favorable, and are not able to undergo SN1 reaction.

Title: the Diels-Alder reaction of Maleic Anhydride and Anthracene

Introduction: The Diels-Alder reaction is actually a reaction of building a six-member diamond ring from a chain. The 2 reactants are called Diene and Dienophile (“Diene-seeker). The goal of this kind of lab was to produce a genuine cyclic product from the reaction of maleic anhydride and anthacene.

Procedure: The procedure is adopted according to the research laboratory manual.

Consequence: _refer towards the datasheet_.

% recovery of recrystallization:

Mass of amazingly before recrystallization: 0. 5822 g

Mass of very after recrystallization: 0. 549 g

% recovery = 94. a few %

Melting point sama dengan 262ËšC ” 266ËšC


The reaction of maleic anhydride and anthracene produces 10-dihydroanthracene-9, 10-, -succinic acid anhydride. The use of xylene as a solvent was to permit recrystallization since xylene dissolves the two ingredients on high temperature only. The IR result shows 3 significant troughs, that is peaked at 3449. 67 cm-1, 3075. 19 cm-1 and 2968. 73 cm-1. The first trough was the sp and sp2 stretches, wherever here, We conclude the double inside the product.

The other and third trough was probably the C=O bond extend, where it occurs to look like a very broad ‘swelling’, according to Zubrick, web page 287.


Reaction of water with anhydride

By adding more than suggested xylene could disable it via recrystallizing, and dissolve the merchandise forever.

The carbonic location in the starting material ” maleic anhydride has a extremely sharp, profound, ‘V’ molded trough inside the frequency of ~3500 cm-1 and 3100 cm-1. This shows seen the -OCH group in maleic anhydride. On the other hand, the troughs in the product reveals a very low one compared to the starting materials. The exercises are also even more to be like, ‘U’ designed rather than ‘V’.

The specific music group in the VENTOSEAR is sp3 in between co2 and co2, which usually takes the region around ~3500 cm-1 in the MARCHAR. This happens because the twice bond in maleic anhydride is opened to make a cyclic compound.

Self-dimerization of cyclopentadine

Title: Nitration of Toluene/Electrophillic Aromatic Replacement

Introduction: The goal for this experiment was to determine the regioselectivity of nitration of toluene. The technique used in this lab was reflux, as well as the products were determined by CG.

Procedure: In line with the lab manual.


_See CG cause attached sheet. _

Area of peak one particular (o-nitrotoluene): 11. 933

Part of peak two ” evaluation (m-nitrotoluene): 1 . 5

Area of peak three or more (p-nitrotoluene): a few. 833

Proportion of um: m: l = 10. 933: 1 . 5: a few. 833 ~~ 8: 1: 4


The products of nitration of toluene yield three goods, which are o-nitrotoluene, m-nitrotoluene, and p-nitrotoluene. Because toluene contains a substituent -CH3, which is a donating group in an arene, the item tends to be ortho and afin de directing. Therefore , o-nitrotoluene and p-nitrotoluene ought to be the two major product, and m-nitrotoluene should be the least. The percentage for all these types of compounds is 62%, 8% and thirty percent, according to ortho, traguardo, and afin de respectively.

This is certainly proven inside the result of my own CG evaluation. The area of peak 1 and top 3 is definitely far larger than the area of peak installment payments on your


The ration of my goods, o: meters: p is all about 8: 1: 4, or maybe the percentage, computed by the volume of location; 62% to get ortho-nitrotoluene, 8% for meta-toluene, and thirty percent for para-nitrotoluene. This bout is definitely what I expected, while ortho-para have far more products than the meta configuration.


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