The IC (Integrated Circuits) technology was used in third-generation computers. In a IC processor chip (5 mm square size) a signal is designed having large number of electric components like transistors, capacitors, diodes, resistors etc . Initially, an IC contained just about ten to twenty elements. Thus the IC technology was called as Small Size Integration (SSI). The third-generation was depending on IC technology and the pcs were designed using this technology. IBM 370, PDP eleven are amongst examples. Advantages
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The main advantages of third-generation when compared with previous years of pcs were: Smaller in size Production expense was low Many input/output devices had been introduced just like mouse and keyboard etc .
Very fast in computational power More reliable Low power intake Maintenance cost was low because failure rate of hardware was very low. Easily portable Easy to operate Improved easily Fully general purpose. Trusted for several commercial applications all over the world Lower heat generated Magnetic disk used for external storage
Even more storage capacity High-level languages were commonly used Cons The main cons of third-generation computers were: Air-conditioning essential.
Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturer chips. four. Fourth Technology Computers (1971 to Present) Microprocessors The microchip technology was launched in this technology of computer systems. With the growth in IC technology, LSI (Large Level Integration) poker chips were produced. It was feasible to incorporate over 40, 000 or even more components onto single LSI chip.
After LSI, the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) was developed and the development of processor possible. It truly is expected that more than a million components will be integrated on a single chip of VLSI. Applying VLSI technology, the entire CPU is designed on one silicon processor chip. The use of processor as CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT introduced one other class of computers named the microcomputers. Thus fourth-generation may be named Microcomputer generation. The Intel 4004 chip was the first microprocessor. In 1981, IBM introduced the first laptop for home work with. In 1984, Apple launched the Macs. Advantages
The huge benefits of fourth-generation as compared to previous generation personal computers are: Littlest in size because of high element density. Production cost is very low Very reliable Hardware inability is minimal and hence minimal maintenance is needed. Easily lightweight because of their small size Entirely general purpose Air-con is not really compulsory Very high processing rate Very large external and internal storage capacity Employed advanced type & end result devices just like optical readers, laser printers, CD-ROM/DVD-ROM hard drives etc . High temperature generated is definitely negligible Little labour and cost involved at set up stage
Disadvantages The main drawbacks of fourth-generation computers will be: Highly complex technology necessary for the manufacturer of microprocessor snacks 5. 5th Generation Personal computers (In process) Artificial Intelligence The main problem with first to fourth technology computers is that the computers haven’t their own pondering power. They are totally dependant on the instructions given by you. Computer gadgets with manufactured intelligence are still in expansion, but some of those technologies are starting to come out and be employed such as voice recognition.
AIl is actually a reality permitted by using parallel processing and superconductors. Bending to the upcoming, computers will be radically transformed again by quantum computation, molecular and anon technology. Fifth technology computers are supposed to be the right computers, yet do not exist. The researchers are working to create such personal computers that will have the following features: Having their own thinking electricity Making decisions themselves Having capabilities of learning Having capabilities of reasoning Having large ability of interior storage
Having extra substantial processing rate Having capabilities of seite an seite processing During these computers subsequent technologies to be used: ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Built-in Circuits) technology Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology also called the information Processor. The AI means automatic programs that let the machines to think and determine themselves. The programming different languages LISP (List Processor) and PROLOG (Programming with Logic) are used for manufactured intelligence. The scientists by ICOT in Japan use the PROLOG to produce the Unnatural Intelligence application.
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