1 ) 0 INTRO All human being cultures tell stories about the past, actions of ancestors and forefathers, heroes, gods, or animals.
Songs sacred to particular peoples were chanted and memorized a long time before there was any writing which to record them. All their truth was authenticated by very fact of their continued repetition. History which can be considered as a merchant account that purports to be the case of occasions and methods of thinking and feeling in a few part of the individual past stems from this archetypal human narrative activity. Whilst sharing one common ancestry with myth, story, epic poetry, and the story, history offers of course diverged from these directives.
Its claim to truth is operating out of part on the fact that all the persons or events this describes actually existed or perhaps occurred at some point in the past. Historians can say nothing about these people or occasions that can not be supported, or at least suggested, simply by some kind of documented evidence. This kind of evidence typically takes the form of something written, for instance a letter, a law, an administrative record, or the bank account of a lot of previous vem som st?r.
In addition , historians sometimes create their own proof by interviewing people. Inside the 20th 100 years, the range of famous evidence was greatly widened to include, inter alia, high photographs, garments, motion pictures, and houses and so forth Furthermore, most developed countries have their National Archives. This really is in reputation of the actuality that knowledge of the past is crucial to contemporary society. What happens in today’s, and what to you suppose will happen in the future, is certainly much governed in what happened in past times.
Without a complete knowledge of previous events and circumstances, we’re able to not even make an attempt to grapple with these complications. Without knowledge of the past we would be with out identity, we would be dropped on an endless sea of your energy. However , it is obvious that knowledge of yesteryear has not helped bring easy strategies to problems in, say, Nigeria, Mali, Zimbabwe, Palestine or even other parts worldwide. Notwithstanding the simple fact that record is vital in any society and in truth a necessary component for its progress, but many useful facts looking us at the facial skin have shown that people learn from history that they will not learn from record.
Thus, I would really like to support and defend the assertion that history educates us that history teaches nothing’. When delving in to this argumentative cum mental excursus, I want to explain the term History’ and Why people examine history’ History begins together with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons with the past ahead6171. Records from the past begin to be held for the advantage of future generations’1 Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC 425 BC) has generally been recognized as the father of history.
Nevertheless , his modern-day Thucydides (460 BC 400 BC) is awarded with having first got into contact with history using a well-developed historic method in the work the History of the Peloponnesian War’. In his historic method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a fairly neutral point of view, and that the human globe was the result of the actions of individuals. Greek historians also looked at history because cyclical, with events on a regular basis recurring.
Be sufficient to say that the word history’ entered the English dialect in 1390 with the that means of relation of occurrences or story. Professor Richard J. Evans defines record as a great academic self-discipline which runs on the narrative to examine and evaluate a sequence of past occasions, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine these people. According to Professor Arthur Marwick in the article titled The Fundamentals of History’, history is definitely the body of knowledge about the past made by historians, along with everything that is involved in the production, communication of, and educating about that knowledge’. 3 In E. They would. Carr’s What Is Background?
Carr draws on sources by Nietzsche to Herodotus to argue for a even more subtle definition of history since an non stop dialogue between present as well as the past’. 4 No wonder, Whitney says that history is definitely facilitated by formation of the true talk of past’5 through the creation of narrative and analysis of past events associated with the human competition. History is definitely the analysis and interpretation from the human earlier that enables us to study continuity and change with time.
It is an take action of equally investigation and imagination that seeks to describe how individuals have changed over time. Historians employ all forms of evidence to examine, interpret, revisit, and reinterpret the past. Included in this are not just crafted documents, although also mouth communication and objects such as buildings, ruse, photographs, and paintings.
Historians are been trained in the methods of discovering and evaluating these sources, plus the challenging task of making historical sense away of them, frankly they are pleasantly disinterested inside their approach to situations. According to Encarta electronic digital dictionary, history is a chronological account of earlier events, it is the branch of relief of knowing that records and analyses previous events’6. Much more, Encyclopaedia Britannica defines record as the discipline that studies the chronological record of occasions (as affecting a land or people), based on a vital examination of resource materials and generally presenting an explanation of their causes’7. Understanding why historic incidents took place is important. To do this, historians often consider geography.
Weather condition patterns, water supply, as well as the landscape of the place almost all affect the lives of the persons who live there. For example , to describe why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, learning the geography of Egypt is essential. At this juncture, it really is paramount to say that the writing of history, particularly the writing of history based on the critical study of sources, selecting particular information from the genuine materials in those resources, and the activity of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical assessment is known as Historiography.
History is additionally a bridge to various other disciplines. In order to understand the various other humanities and sciences you need a traditional overview. Copy writers, artists, researchers, politicians, philosophers etc . are conditioned by historical milieu in which that they lived.
Famous knowledge can be described as prerequisite for understanding the community in which we all live. Record is magister vitae, teacher of existence. History prepares all of us to live more humanely in today’s and to meet the challenges of the future because it gives us with understanding of a persons condition.
Irrespective of these explanations why people examine history, it might be disheartening to view that these reasons do not quickly translate into practice considering precisely what is on surface in the world. Hence, anybody can say with no fear of equivocation or halving that history teaches us that history teaches nothing’. To explicate this viewpoint further, I would really like to delineate in a jiffy the essential elements to be considered in history, from there I would showcase why record teaches us that record teaches absolutely nothing.
4. 0 HISTORY TEACHES US THAT HISTORY SHOWS NOTHING: APPLYING NIGERIA LIKE A CASE STUDY. Having explained the concept of history and how come we research history, the difficulties that stare us at encounter are; just how has the understanding of the past favorably influenced the present day society? As to what extent may be the history impacting on the lives of people? What makes it that people, countries, continents and so forth repeat the same mistake with the past?
Does it mean that background has no positive influence about human advancement or that individuals have blatantly refused to understand from record? No wonder the prestigious German Philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the lectures for the philosophy of history said; What experience and history shows us is that people and governments have never learned nearly anything from background, or served on rules deduced coming from it We learn from history that we will not learn from history [Hence] Background teaches that history teaches us nothing at all. If we carry on to solid a look at the fate of the world historical personalities we shall believe it is to have been no content one.
They attained not any calm entertainment; their whole nature was labour and trouble; their particular whole nature was nothing but their master’s passion. Once their subject is obtained they decline like clear hulls from the kernel To expatiate on this assertion that history instructs us that history educates nothing, I would really prefer to use Nigeria as a example because I am even more familiar with Nigerian history. Prior to delving into this mental discuss, I want to posit certain questions: What is the percentage of Nigerians that are proficiently engaged? How many of them can pay their bills?
Education is usually one aspect that can lift the fortunes of a country overnight: as it is today, what is the percentage of the population that attain university till tertiary institution? What percentage with the population are able to afford the charges for their education? What has the government done to entrenched unanimity rather than racial?
Why has the government within address these nagging problems? The most suitable answer to these interrogatives is that the authorities has failed to understand from history. In fact , a brief history of Nigeria has trained nothing to the government of this country considering precisely what is on surface. The blame is usually shifted for the government mainly because as Achebe wrote in his book, The Trouble with Nigeria’, the challenge of Nigeria is that of management. Let me succinctly delineate and expatiate on this assertion that history educates us that history teaches nothing which includes major occasions that have occurred in Nigeria.
To be even more precise, We hold the view that we have been stagnant in a lot of methods, we have degenerated in so many more ways although very little, in the event that any progress, has been produced in our 03 to meaningful nationhood. An important reason for our lacklustre performance at nation-building as Soyinka prescribes inside the Dance of the Forest may be the failure to draw lessons from the past at every submit our history. That is a great enterprise through which Nigeria even now fails woefully.
Hear what I read in one of the National Dailies that Chief Obafemi Awolowo, one of the active participants inside the move towards independence, explained in a conversation he provided on the floor of the home of Staff in Lagos on March 31, 1953; It has been customary for our friends through the North to threaten the remaining of Nigeria with separation if this is completed or if that is not done We find the northern the greater part is not only getting used (by the colonialists, I actually presume) in having their particular way, but it really is also being utilized in avoiding the community from having their say Such was your suspicion and distrust that existed among major ethnic nationalities in the area at the attainment of freedom. This suspicion eventually generated many effet like that of; 15th January 1966 Nigeria Major Kaduna Nzeogwu which usually led to the death of several including Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the then excellent minister, twenty ninth July 1966, a weakling coup led by Col.
Yakubu Gowon, which claimed the life of Main General JTU Aguyi Ironsi and many others, 29th July 1975, by Basic Murtala Mohammed against General Yakubu Gowon and was successful, 13th February 1976, by Col. Dinka which will resulted for the death in the then Mind of Point out, General Murtala Mohammed, thirty first December 1983, by Key General Ibrahim B. Buhari against Alhaji Shehu Shagari took place and was good, 27th Aug 1985, simply by Major General Ibrahim W. Babangida against General Buhari. This suspicion also led to the municipal war by which millions of lives were shed. Now, features Nigeria discovered anything from these? I do think, NO . The reason is , fifty three years old, national the usage is still epic in Nigeria.
There are mental missiles around the world by individuals who desire to enhance the interest of their ethnic organizations, all of them fanning the embers of strife and conflict. Ethnic militias exist in almost different parts of the country threatening the lives and living of those who also do not reveal their ethnic or religious pedigree. A large number of Nigerians specifically Southerners have lost their lives due to Boko Haram insurgency. This was a type of situation which made Ojukwu to declare the Republic of Biafra due the massacre in the Igbos in the North.
This kind of declaration afterwards led to city war. We now have even found the deportation of hapless Nigerians from a single state for the other plus the attendant mental outbursts that followed it. In fact , Nigeria has failed woefully to learn from history for the reason that lessons of the past are never placed on better living of her citizenry.
At this time, seven governors elected around the platform in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) are on do or expire mission to obtain a politician of northern extraction into the office of president come 2015. To them, regardless of that the north had organised that situation for thirty seven out of Nigeria’s 53 years of independence, and that the region in particular plus the nation generally, has not show for it, all they can be interested in is that the next Director is from your North. To drive home the urgency of their desire, some of their supporters include actually vulnerable that Nigeria would be record if this pet job failed.
Are these political figures unable to learn from history that born to rule mindset is a cankerworm that has endangered the fabric of nationhood? Legendary copy writer, Chinua Achebe in his recognized book, The problem with Nigeria once explained: But whereas tribalism may win enough ballots to install a reactionary jingoist in a tribal ghetto, the cult of mediocrity provides the tires of modernisation grinding to a halt throughout the land This provides the state of affairs in Nigeria at the moment. It is as bad regarding past and present market leaders in the country to brazenly tell the world that Nigeria’s key challenge is definitely the lack of genuine and devoted leadership even while non-e of which has the the aristocracy to confess of the demand.
This trouble of awful leadership accounts for the annoying level of incompetence that we have in most areas of our national your life. It seems in my experience that a impair of cluelessness has descended on Nigeria over the years. File corruption error in particular is usually one vice in which Nigeria has grown in leaps and bounds over the years. If there were pockets of corrupt procedures in the country on the attainment of independence, Nigeria has in the last 53 years grown corruption to the level that it has literarily attained a life of its very own.
This has almost brought area to it is knees while using resultant break of the middle class as well as the gap between rich and the poor extending by the day. Which means that Nigerian frontrunners in all industries of your life have failed to learn from background that corruptive practices slow down the development of a nation and the excessive difference between the wealthy and poor can make the indegent people to begin a revolt resistant to the rich. Even more still, agriculture which was the mainstay of the country’s economic system up until the end of the Initial Republic has taken reserve no thanks to the seeming ease with which petro-dollars have come to us since the petrol boom in the 1970s.
As Nigeria’s oil potential customer increased, political leaders discovered more money to siphon or launder at the same time they are not able to sustain the structures which in turn made existence meaningful intended for the citizenry. Today, a lot more almost not bearable for the regular Nigerian. Nigerian leaders manage to forget it turned out this kind of ambiance that brought in in the People from france revolution.
Nigeria has not discovered from history. Hence, out of this exposition of Nigerian experience, I still maintain that history instructs us that history educates nothing individuals have failed to learn from the teachings of history. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Carr, Edward They would. (1961).
What is History? s. 108 a couple of Evans, Rich J. The Two Encounters of Electronic. H. Carr. History In Focus. An article published simply by Palgrave, 2001. 3 Marwick, Arthur The Nature of History’ The MacMillian Press LTD. pg.
169, 1970. 4 Mentor Arthur Marwick in his document titled The Fundamentals of History’ In E. They would. Carr’s What Is Background? 5 Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; a great encyclopaedic lexicon of The english language language.
Nyc: The Hundred years Co, 1889. 6 Encarta Microsoft Digital Dictionary 2010 edition 7 EncyclopГ¦dia Britannica Ultimate Reference point Suite. Chi town: EncyclopГ¦dia Britannica, 2011. almost eight Hegel’s Classes on Viewpoint of History that has been assessed online on the third of Nov, 2013.
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