Section 4

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The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)

Historical Background

Following 300 years of passivity beneath Spanish rule, the Philippine spirit reawakened when the a few priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora had been guillotined without sufficient proof of guilt. This occurred within the 17th of February. It was buttressed together with the spirit of liberalism if the Philippines opened its doors to community trade device coming of a liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Nancy de la Torre. The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos.

The once religious nature transformed by itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the authorities and in the church. A. THE PROMOCI�N MOVEMENT (1872-1896)

This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Base; Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno. The objectives with this movement would have been to seek reconstructs and changes like the following: 1 . To get the same treatment intended for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the legislation.

2 . To make the Philippines a nest of Italy.

3. To revive Filipino rendering in the The spanish language Cortes. 4. To Filipinize the parishes.

your five. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, set up and for redress of grievances.

B. FEATURES OF THE DIVULGACI�N MOVEMENT

There were three principal leaders of the Propaganda movement. They were Jose S. Rizal, Marcelo H. delete Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Listed below are highlights about them and the actual have done for our country. DR . JOSE P. RIZAL

Jose Protacio Rizal Setor Alonzo sumado a Realonda came to be on 06 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna. His first instructor was his mother Teodora Alonozo. He studied with the Ateneo sobre Manila, started medicine by UST and finished in the Universidad Central of Madrid. He also studied in the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on January 30, 1896 on fees of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and writings: 1 . NOLI MYSELF TANGERE. It was the book that gave spirit for the propaganda activity and paved the way to the innovation against The country. In this publication, he courageously exposed the evils inside the Spanish-run govt in the Israel. The Spaniards prohibited the reading of the novel yet a lot of translations could actually enter quietly in the country whether or not it means fatality to those captured in possession of them. The NOLI gave Filipino literature the immortal characters Maria Alb�mina, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosofong Tasio, Doña Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio and Crispin, Rizal a new powerful pen in the delineation of these character types. 2 . ESTE FILIBUSTERISMO.

This is certainly a sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI uncovered those in the government and in the chapel. However , the NOLI continues to be dubbed the novel of society while that of FILI is that of politics.

3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS (My Previous Farewell). It was a poem by Rizal while having been incarcerated by Fort Santiago and is the one that can evaluate favorably together with the best in the earth. It was simply after his death when his name was affixed for the poem.

5. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE AQUELLAS FILIPINOS (On the Indolence of the Filipinos). An essay on the so-called Filipino indolence and an assessment of the reasons behind such allegations.

5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CENTENA AÑOS (The Philippines in a Century). A great essay predicting the raising influence of the US in the Philippines plus the decreasing fascination of The european countries here. Rizal predicted that if there is some other colonizer with the Philippines down the road, it would be the US.

6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA (To the Filipino Youth). A composition Rizal focused on the Philippine youth their studies at UST.

six. EL CONSEJO DE L’ENSEMBLE DES DIOSES (The Council with the Gods). A great allegorical perform manifesting admiration for Cervantes.

almost eight. JUNTO ING PASIG (Beside the Pasig River). Written by Rizal when he was 14 years of age.

being unfaithful. ME PIDEN VERSOS (you actually asked Me pertaining to Verses): 1882 and A LAS A DE HEIDELBERG (To the Flowers of Heidelberg). Two poems manifesting Rizal’s uncommon depth of emotion. twelve. NOTAS I SMAG MED OBRA SUCESOS DE TODAS LAS FILIPINAS PERTAINING TO EL DR . ANTONIO DE MORGA (Notes on Filipino Events by Dr . Antonio de Morga): 1889 eleven. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS DE UN ESTUDIANTE DE MANILA

(P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Scholar of Manila) 1882 MARCELO H. DELETE PILAR

Marcelo H. delete Pilar is definitely popularly praised for his pencil name of Plaridel, Transfering Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He was created at Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan on August 35, 1850. He established the Diariong Tagalog in 1883 where he revealed the evils of the Spanish government inside the Philippines and to avoid the fake accusations rushed at him by the priests. To avoid exile, he was forced to travel to Spain in 1888. He was aided by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Cathecism and Passion Publication wherein they will made fun of the priests.

They also built the DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN and KAIINGAT KAYO taken from the word IGAT, a kind of snake fish caught in governmental policies. Upon his arrival in Spain, he changed Graciano Lopez Jaena because editor of LA APOYO, a conventional paper which started to be the vehicle through which reforms in the federal government could be exercised. Writings of Marcelo H. del Base

1 . PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love of Country). Translated from your Spanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published on September 20, 1882, in Diariong Tagalog.

2 . KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful). A amusing and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the book NOLI of Rizal, released in Barcelona in 1888. He applied Dolores Manapat as pen-name here.

3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes). Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, printed in Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, delete Pilar was called “filibuster. ” Required for admirable tone of request and excellent use of Tagalog.

4. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God’s Goodness). Published in Barcelona, it was love a cathecism sarcastically targeted against the parish priests nevertheless also includes a philosophy of the electric power and brains of Goodness and a great appreciation intended for and like for mother nature.

5. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG PILIPINAS (Answer to Spain on the Plea with the Filipinos). A poem pleading for differ from Spain yet that Spain is already older and weak to scholarhip any aid to the Israel. This poem is in answer to that of Hermenigildo Flores’ Hibik sa Pilipinas (A Request from the Philippines).

6. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS (Sovereignty in the Philippines). This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos.

7. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA (Passion that should arouse the hearts of the readers) GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA (1856-1896)

A most notable main character and professional of the Philippines, Graciano Lopez Jaena was created on Dec 18, 1856 and died on January 20, 1896. The satisfaction of Jaro, Iloilo, this individual won the admiration with the Spaniards and Europeans. He can a known writer and orator inside the Philippines. He wrote 90 speeches which are published by simply Remigio Garcia, former book shop owner in Manila Filatica and that are still read up to zero by contemporary Filipinos. Lopez Jaena still left the Korea in 1887 with the help of Add Claudio Lopez, a wealthy uncle, to be able to escape abuse form his enemies and arrived at Valencia, the center in the Republican movement of the Spaniards. From Valencia, he relocated to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. This later became the state voice of the Association Hispanico de Filipinas (a Filipino-Spanish Association) made up of Filipinos and Spaniards who worked to get reforms inside the Philippines. Due to this, Jaena efficiently showed the Spaniards plus the people of the community how a newspaperman can present changes in regulation and reforms towards a better life and progress. The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena

1 . ANG ARENA BOTOD (Friar Botod). Certainly one of his functions written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Thailand. He revealed how a number of the friars were greedy, driven and immoral.

2 . LA HIJA DE FRAILE (The Child from the Friar) and EVERYTING IS DEFINITELY HAMBUG (Everything is simple show). Right here Jaena clarifies the disaster of marrying a Spaniard. 3. SA MGA PILIPINO…1891… A talk which aimed to improve the current condition of the Filipinos to become free of charge and intensifying.

4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to Commemorate Columbus). A speech he provided in This town on the 39th anniversary with the discovery of America

your five. EN REVERANCE DEL PRESIDENTE MORAYTA ENTRE MA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884. Here this individual praised Gen. Morayta intended for his equal treatment of the Filipinos.

6th. EN PRIZE DE LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Con RESURRECCION ALTRUISTA. A sincere expression of praise intended for the artwork of Caballeroso on the current condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards.

7. COITO A ESPAÑA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS (Love for Spain or To the Youngsters of Malolos). The topic is about how girls were taught Spanish in educational institutions and in whose teachers had been the governors-general from the place.

eight. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (Banditry in the Philippines). Jaena refuted the existence of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be laws about robbery and other reforms. 9. HONOR SOBRE PILIPINAS (Honor in the Philippines). The triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Mulato de Tavera of the thesis that intelligence or understanding gives reverance to the Thailand. 10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS (Abolition of Taxes inside the Philippines) 14. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (Sufferings of the Philippines). Jaena pertains here for the wrong management of education in the Israel 1887. N. OTHER PROPAGANDISTS

ANTONIO LUNA

Antonio Luna was a pharmacist who had been banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Movement and contributed his articles to LA SOLIDARIDAD. Most of his performs dealt with Philippine customs yet others were claims about how the Spaniards leaped the government. His pen name was Tagailog. Some of his works are:

1 . NOCHE BUENA (Christmas Eve). This pictured true Filipino life.

2 . SE DEVIERTEN (How They Redirected Themselves). A dig in a move of the Spaniards where the individuals were very packed.

3. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA (A Filipino Conference or perhaps Feast). Depicts a Filipino custom which usually he believed was a lot better than the Spanish.

4. POR MADRID (For Madrid). A denouncement of Spaniards who also claim that the Philippines can be described as colony of Spain although who imagine Filipinos as foreigners with regards to collecting fees for plastic stamps.

5. LA CASA PARA HUEPEDES (The Landlady’s House). Depicts a landlady who looks for boarders not for funds but in in an attempt to get a hubby for her child. MARIANO PONCE

Mariano Ponce became an editor-in-chief, biographer and specialist of the Promoci�n Movement. This individual used Tikbalang, Kalipulako, and Naning while pennames. The common themes of his works were the values of education. He also published about how the Filipinos were oppressed by the foreigners associated with the problems of his countrymen. Among his writings were:

1 . MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend of Bulacan). Contains stories, and folklores of his native city.

2 . PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (The Beheading of Longinos). A play shown at the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan.

several. SOBRE FILIPINOS (About the Filipinos)

four. ANG MGA PILIPINO SOCIAL FEAR INDO-TSINA (The Filipinos in Indo-China) PEDRO PATERNO

Pedro Affettuoso was a college student, researcher and novelist from the Propaganda Motion. He as well joined the Confraternity of Masons as well as the Asosacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to further the is designed of the Movements. He was the first Philippine writer who have escaped censorship of the press during the last day of the The spanish language colonization. The next were a number of his wrtings:

1 . NINAY. The 1st social book in The spanish language by a Filipino.

installment payments on your A MI MADRE (To My Mother). Shows the value of a mother especially in the house. 3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS (Sampaguitas and Diverse Poems). An accumulation of his poems. JOSE MOTHER. PANGANIBAN

Jose Ma. Panganiban hid his identity behind his penname JORMAPA. Having been also known for having photographic brain. He was an associate of a quantity of movements pertaining to the country. Several of his articles were: 1 ) ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My Native Land)

2 . ANG AKING BUHAY (My Life)

3. TU PLANO PARA ESTUDIO (Your Study Plan)

4. EL PENSAMIENTO (The Thinking) C. PERIOD OF ACTIVE REVOLUTION (1896-1898)

Historical Qualifications

The Filipinos would not get the reconstructs demanded by propagandists. The federal government turned hard of hearing ears to these petitions; oppression continued and the church plus the government became even more oppressive to the Filipinos. The good intentions of The country of spain were corrected by the friars who were lording it over in the Philippines. For this reason, not a few of the Filipinos associated with the La Liga Filipina (a civic organization supposed of being ground-breaking and which will triggered Rizal’s banishment to Dapitan).

Just like Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Laureles, and Fervoroso Valenzuela made the decision that there is no other way except to rise ? mutiny. The gist of books contained mostly accusations against the government and was designed to arouse the individuals to unite and to prepare for independence. Deb. THE SHOWS OF THE ACTIVE REVOLUTION

The noted commanders of this period were Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Apolinario Mabini. These are their contributions to our country. ANDRES BONIFACIO

Andres Bonifacio is best known as the Father of Filipino Democracy, nevertheless more than others, as the Father of the Katipunan because he led in developing the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangan Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Andres Bonifacio came from a bad family and it is known that what he learned he received from the university of experience. He was a voracious target audience and between those he loved to learn which turned on his revolutionary spirit were the NOLI and the FILI of Rizal. He joined up with the La Liga Filipina founded by simply Rizal in 1892. He established the Katipunan which triggered the spirit of freedom particularly when Rizal was banished to Dapitan, Mindanao. Bonifacio is much better known as the superb Revolutionary rather than writer but he also wrote items which paved the way for the revolution and which also became component to our literary works. Among his works were:

1 . ANG DAPAT MABATID NG MGA TAGALOG (What the Tagalogs Should Know)

2 . KATUNGKULANG GAGAWIN NG MGA ANA NG BAYAN (Obligations of your Countrymen).

3. PAG-IBIG SOCIAL FEAR TINUBUAN SELAP (Love of the Native Land). A composition with a name similar to regarding Marcelo H. del Base.

4. HULING PAALAM (Last Farewell). A translation of Mi Ultimo Adios of Rizal in Tagalog. EMILIO JACINTO

Emilio Jacinto was your intelligent helper of Andres Bonifacio in the establishment of the Katipunan. He can called the Brains in the Katipunan. This individual edited Kalayaan (Freedom) a Katipunan newspapers. Bonifacio withdrew his writing of the Kartilya in deference to Jacinto’s work as secretary of the Katipunan. His Kartilya was the one particular followed by the members from the organization. Allow me to share few of his writings: 1 ) KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN (A primer publication on the Katipunan)

2 . LIWANAG AT DILIM (Light and Darkness). An amount of essays on different themes like liberty, work, hope, government, take pleasure in of country.

3. A MI PRIMA (To My personal Mother). A touching ode to his mother.

four. A LA TIERRA (To My Country). His masterpiece.

APOLINARIO MABINI

Apolinario Mabini is known in books and history as the Sublime Paralytic and the Brains of the Innovation. He became the right-hand of Emilio Aguinaldo if the latter founded his Republic in Malolos. His contributions to literary works were publishing on authorities society, idea and governmental policies. Here are some of his functions: 1 . EL VERDADERO DECALOGO (The The case Decalogue or Ten Commandments). This was his masterpiece fantastic aim in this article was to pass on the heart of nationalism. 2 . UN DESAROLLO Sumado a CAIDA ENTRE MA REPUBLICA (The Rise and Fall with the Philippine Republic) 3. SOCIAL FEAR BAYANG PILIPINO (To the Filipino Nation)

4. PAHAYAG (News)

OTHER REVOLUTIONISTS

JOSE PALMA – Jose Triunfo became popular due to his Himno Nacional Filipino (The Filipino National Anthem) which was going music by simply Julian Felipe. He signed up with the revolution against the People in the usa together with Gregorio del Pilar, the most youthful Filipino basic who passed away during the revolution. Aside from the Countrywide Anthem, allow me to share his different works: 1 . MELANCOLIAS (Melancholies). A collection of his poems.

installment payments on your DE MI JARDIN (In My Garden). A poem expressing their longings for his lover.

E. MAGAZINES DURING THE INNOVATION

In the effort from the Revolutionists to spread towards the world their very own longings because of their country, many newspapers had been put up during the Revolutionary period. They were: 1 ) HERALDO ENTRE MA REVOLUCION. Printed the decrees of the Revolutionary Government, reports and works in Tagalog that turned on nationalism. 2 . LA INDEPENDENCIA (Independence). Modified by Antonio Luna and whose goal was to get Philippine Freedom. 3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (The Filipino Republic). Structured on Pedro Benevolo in 1898. 4. LA LIBERTAD (Liberty). Edited by simply Clemente Zulueta.

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