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Advantages (CE 1 . 1 . )

This career episode presents my own unpublished undergrad thesis done individually during my final year under the oversight of my personal major adviser. I happy this like a final task in completion for the level of Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering Major in Pulp and Paper Technology. The life long the study was three (3) semesters coming from 1st term academic 12 months 2014-2015 to 1st session academic season 2015-2016. I conducted and submitted the analysis at the Office of Forest Products and Newspaper Science, School of Forestry and Organic Resources (CFNR) and the Division of Substance Engineering, College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology (CEAT), University from the Philippines Mis Baños (UPLB). I borrowed the part of the electrospinning set-up from the Fiber Use and Technology Division of the Philippine Dietary fiber Industry Creation Authority (PhilFIDA), Diliman, Quezon City, Community Manila, Philippines. I did the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) tests at the Chemistry Arrangement Room II, Chemistry Division and the Area Physics Laboratory, Physics Division, respectively of De La Assemblée State School (DLSU). I performed the antimicrobial testing at Microbiology Laboratory from the Institute of Biological Savoir (IBS), UPLB. B. History (CE 1 ) 2 . ) Nowadays, reported cases of microbial toxic contamination in different areas in the Thailand are common in drinking water. Arsenic intoxication microorganisms on water floors causes risk to man health. The development of alternative anti-bacterial materials was emphasized because they can find the important thing to the inability treatment of wastewater from different sources. Generally, I utilized my understanding as a chemical substance engineering college student using nanotechnology, electrospinning and membrane purification to bring in a more successful, stable and sturdy process to resolve the problem on water pollution.

Thus, My spouse and i focused on study regarding electrospun cellulose acetate membrane embedded with zinc oxide nanoparticles for membrane filtration application. (CE 1 . a few. ) Zinc oxide nanoparticles are known for all their antibacterial activity. On the other hand, electrospun fibers possess high purification efficiency. Microbes contaminated effluents can be treated making use of the antibacterial electrospun nanofibers. Eliminating this microorganisms reduces the risks. In more detail, my specific objectives to get the study are: 1 . to build up a suitable method for the production of cellulose acetate nanofibers embedded with zinc o2 nanoparticles employing electrospinning, installment payments on your to determine the efficient groups and compounds which can be observed with all the nanofibers upon embedding zinc oxide nanoparticles, 3. to characterize the consequence of embedding zinc oxide nanoparticles on the dietary fiber morphology with the electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers, 4. to compare the method of bringing out zinc o2 nanoparticles in nanofibers applying commercial zinc oxide and precursor, and 5. to evaluate the stability of the electrospun membranes to get antibacterial applications using the area of inhibited method. C. Professional Anatomist Activity (CE 1 . 4) On my case, I enrolled the thesis course (PPT 200 total credit devices of 6 (6)) in three (3) terms (two (2) models per term). At first, We consulted my personal adviser upon what subject to work on and observed his recommendations. There were additional independent research in the university that worked on the application of cellulose acetate for the various areas of executive. I executed initial studies on cellulose acetate materials and select its application on waste water treatment through membrane filtration. By reviewing related references, My spouse and i came up with the preliminary research to present towards the panel composed of one (1) adviser and two (2) engineering teachers. I prepared the topic presentation using Ms PowerPoint.

The panel discussion determined the range, limitation and possible issues that I could come across prior to working away at the job. (CE 1 . 5) After the topic pitch, I further more investigated relevant literatures on my study through accessing the university collection for on the net published journals, previous undergrad theses and other engineering browsing materials. Primarily based from these types of recent studies, I outlined and performed the primary methods to decide the optimum experimental conditions pertaining to the manufacture of electrospun nanofibers. The identified critical parameters were solution houses, processing guidelines and ambient parameters. I came across out the solution concentration and supply flow price greatly affect the fiber development. I highlighted on these kinds of variables by simply setting different concentration and flow level to achieve stableness. Fiber morphology is very important to get membrane formation as it decides the membrane’s porosity and surface area effectiveness for spend water filtration. Before continuous the study, I showed my panel the final results I got through the initial experiment and increased the problems found. In finishing, I revised some procedures to settle in the final aims and method. (CE 1 . 6) In gathering the materials to get used, the reagents just like cellulose acetate, dimethylformamide (DMF) and acetone were acquired commercially. Other needed reactants and equipment were accessible in the Wooden Chemistry clinical. Prior to the research, I shown a Ghant chart to my advisor to be able to satisfy the project deadline. Likewise, prior to I performed the test, I synchronised to the laboratory manager and technicians with regards to the use of the clinical. In addition with existing lab safety procedures, I designed safety methods for chemical handling, harmful chemicals convenience and electric powered safety. My spouse and i read the material safety data sheet from the chemicals I used, specially the controlled solvents, to know the potential threat and their appropriate disposal. My spouse and i labelled properly all the samples and reactants used to avoid mix ups and proved helpful under the fumehood for solid acids, bases and solutions. Due to deficiency of resources, the electrospinning create I utilized was devised laboratory-scale, it had been assembled making use of the available gear we have in laboratory and some parts were borrowed from PhilFIDA. Consequently, I designed the standard functioning procedure for this experiment to be followed most throughout the research including safety precautions. I identified the risk of the apparatus that were the hollywood requirement (20kV) and solvent vapour weariness. I put the equipment in an separated empty class room, with no types of electro-static appeal, proper ventilation, and maintained safe functioning distance. It absolutely was also known that the working space can only be available by official personnel. Because the user, My spouse and i equipped me with right personal protecting equipment such as insulated boots, face mask and safety glasses to minimize static discharge and exposure to solvent. (CE 1 . 7)

My spouse and i noted via my initial literature testimonials the key parts of the electrospinning process. We learned the suitability of electrospinning procedure in creating polymeric nanofibers and the ideal properties pertaining to the electrospun fibrous membrane such as substantial surface to volume rate, high chemical substance resistance and high tensile to make that a good material for purification. I made the CA/ZnO nanocomposite membrane layer through the electrospinning process in laboratory level using zinc acetate iniciador. I established the attentiveness of LOS ANGELES to 15 % (w/v) with varying the concentration of zinc acetate (0, zero. 5, 1 . 0 and 2 . zero % w/w). For info accuracy and precision, We made two (2) trials per test out run which will summed approximately 8 nanocomposite samples. All procedures were carried out at controlled area conditions. We used the thermohygrometer to monitor and record the relative humidness and temp inside the place for every fresh run. Yet , during electrospinning I encountered fluctuations for the ambient condition readings, We identified this as a difficulty as this may affect the examples on my further analysis. Instantly, I accumulated the amalgamated membranes and dried these people inside the the oven set for 80 oC for 6th hours. (CE 1 . 8)

I subjected the electrospun CA/ZnO nanocomposite membranes to FTIR spectroscopy to determine the practical groups and compounds obtainable in the electrospun nanofibers. I prepared the samples quantitatively using the desert potassium bromide (KBr) pellet method in that case examined using Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 FTIR. The spectra were recorded inside the absorbance and transmittance music group mode inside the range of four thousand to 4 hundred cm-1. The functional groups of most organic compounds had been revealed inside the infrared variety. I analyzed the collection spectra with the samples and observed the best peak happened at reduce wave quantity. I authenticated this realization from trustworthy organic biochemistry and biology references, that it was the presence of Zn-O bending considering the compound being inorganic. The occurrence of strong ionic bond from the metal ion broadened the peaks because this accounted the poor stretching vibration. Moreover, I also general that the characteristic peak of ZnO inside the spectrum occurred at the top concentration (2. 0 %) of Zn compounds inside the nanocomposite. I correlated this with the elevation of the variety is proportional to the value of the attentiveness. (CE 1 ) 9)

I actually used SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING to define the morphology of the nanocomposite samples. The samples were coated and subjected to JEOL 5310 scanning electron microscopic lense. I tested the dietary fiber diameter and bead place each micrographs using the ImageJ version 1 ) 49 then simply recorded the measurements on Microsoft Stand out for tabulation and numerical computations. My spouse and i calculated the standard fiber diameters, average volume of beads and average bead area of the electrospun nanocomposites. I actually plotted the average fiber diameter profile of electrospun nanocomposites at several concentration for graphical manifestation. Using history of my own waste drinking water engineering classes, for filtration application to have enhanced productivity, the satisfactory diameter really should not be more than five-hundred nm. I had been able to see that fiber diameters of samples control and 2 . 0 % achieved the requirement for nanofilter media. Applying engineering analysis, I produced the styles and correlations of my data pertaining to accuracy and reliability. I actually verified the effects of zinc acetate concentration on the fiber morphology using Minitab 17. I analysed employing Tukey Sychronizeds Comparison test out (difference of means) and One-Way ANOVA. At ninety five % confidence level with p-level

With all the assistance of my Microbiology professor, We carried out the antimicrobial test out of electrospun nanocomposites employing pure CA as control on Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and Gram negative bacterias E. coli using the sector of inhibition method below normal lamps condition. MacFarland standards utilized with known population of bacteria swabbed in each plate (3 replications). Following few days allowing for the microbe inhibition, I actually faced one of the most challenging section of the project. My spouse and i observed that no anti-bacterial activity against S. aureus and Electronic. coli for the precursor concentrations of the test tested. This really is contradicting with my speculation. I reviewed my record book, and I was able to recollect the fluctuations on the comparable humidity during production of the membranes. Seeing that I recreated the electrospinning room, the ambient guidelines were unrestrainable. I categorized this aspect as external as it tremendously affected the results of my study. By even more investigation, I accounted the negative process of the electrospun nanocomposite for the unsuccessful energy decomposition of zinc acetate to zinc oxide. Rather than zinc oxidation process, Zn2+ ions reacted for the water within the surroundings developing a complex chelate.

We represented number of chemical equations to illustrate the reaction. I actually reported and consulted the effect instantly to my advisor for suitable corrective actions. After the meeting, I decided to repeat all the procedure making use of commercial ZnO at the ideal concentration of two % (w/w). Still, My spouse and i followed a similar parameters and conditions as CA-zinc acetate nanocomposite pertaining to the planning, fabrication and characterization. I was able to get hold of different results on the features compared using the precursor. Similarly, there was no zone of inhibition intended for antimicrobial activity. However , the sample acquired positive result on the process of minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration. I added this on my objectives and also included it on my data interpretation and discussion. I recorded all the difficulties came across throughout this kind of study and listed tips for future researches. (CE 1 ) 11)

I consolidated all of the data through the computer software programs and record book We used as well as my anatomist analyses, strategies, results, a conclusion and references to be documented in my thesis paper draft. I asked my personal adviser intended for appointments to obtain informal discussions on the conclusions of my own study ahead of proceeding to the final protection and thesis writing. Together with his guidance, We accomplished my personal presentation produced through Microsoft company PowerPoint. At the moment I presented my last project to the panel, My spouse and i highlighted the optimum parameters in producing electrospun CA/ZnO nancomposite membrane to get filtration software. Another key point is the embedment of ZnO and Zn2+ occurred on the highest concentration. Additionally , My spouse and i explained that no inhibitory activity noticed from the nanocomposites. I recognized this finding using the ideas on my chemistry courses. (CE 1 . 12) On my last thesis publishing, I followed the CEAT thesis formatting guidelines third edition revised May 2015. To avoid plagiarism and other forms of academic duplicity, I made sure that all the references We used had been cited. The necessary bibliographic formats were altered American Mental Association (APA) style. With all the approval of my thesis panel and respective teachers in charge, I successfully completed my final project. D. Summary (CE 1 . 13) Upon concluding my undergraduate thesis, We developed my interest in the wastewater and environmental part of chemical engineering.

I used to be able to identify my forte on relating scientific study to higher hormone balance concepts, product operations, device processes, method safety and engineering examination as well as overrode my weaknesses. Likewise, the research I did was another success on the department’s continuing research on nanotechnology and its program. It can be ongoing in the future to get my masters degree. During the process, I developed good practices on connecting and changing my advisor every phase that is done to meet the objectives. I likewise asked questions to my advisor and panel whenever the specific situation is not clear. My discussion with these people led myself to further research the appropriate executive and statistical software to work with on data interpretation and analysis. We coordinated correctly with different staff to finish my personal thesis proficiently within the given time frame.

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