Porosity is the best known physical characteristic of your oil water tank. It
Database of essay examples, templates and tips for writing For only $9.90/page
decides the volume of oil or perhaps gas present, and all recovery computations must
be based on knowledge of their value. Porosity of a material is defined as that
fraction of the bulk volume of this fabric that is not busy by the sound
framework with the material. In oil reservoirs, the porosity represents the
percentage from the total space that is available for occupancy simply by eighter fluids
or smells. It establishes the memory space of the yellow sand and is generally
expressed on the percentage basis or being a fraction or a decimal. You can
distinguish two styles of porosity, namely, absolute and powerful: Absolute
porosity is the percentage of total void space with respect to the volume volume
regardless of interconnection in the pore voids. Effective porosity is the
percentage of connected with each other void space with respect to the large volume.
Successful Porosity Measurements: Grain volume methods: In these methods the
consolidated test is solvent extracted and dried, most volume is determined
eighter by displacement of a liquid which in turn does not penetrate the sample or
simply by saturating the sample and volumetrically displacing a suitable the liquid with
the saturated sample. The materials volume, or perhaps volume of the solid construction of the
test, maybe assessed by the volumetric displacement of a gas or maybe a liquid, although
the ouverture volume can be measured simply by determining the quantity of liguid neccesary to
fill the sample. It is clear that the percentage of porosity may be
calculated from this sort of data by simply use of eighter of the two following human relationships:
Per cent porosity=100x(bulk volume feed volume/bulk volume) OR Per cent
porosity=100x(pore volume/bulk volume) Large volume willpower: The bulk quantity
of the removed and dried out samples might be determined by volumetric displacement
of mercury. Ouverture gas expansion method: The measurements of porosity may also be
made by the pore-gas expansion method, or perhaps so-called Washburn-Bunting
method. (1922). This method utilizes a revised Toepler pump so much being used in
high-vacuum techniques in order to produce the barometric vacuum and take out air
via a dried up core. The bulk volume of the core should be known from all other tests.
Mercury-injection method: When a rock contains a very small small percentage of void space, that
is diffucult to measure it by simply methods previously discussed. You can then resort
to pushing a noncompressible liquid in to the sample under very high pressure. The
unique idea appears to have been that of Horner(1944). Loss of excess weight
method: The measurement with the grain volume of a primary sample can also be
determined by the loss in excess weight of a over loaded sample stepped in a liquid.
Liquid vividness Method: Measurements of ouverture volume are often achieved by
liquefied saturation. Porosity of large main samples: A technique is recommended by
Locke and Bliss(1950) for the measurement of porosity in large cores, i. e, cores
as recovered from drilling businesses without further reduction in size by
testing of tiny plugs. Overall Porosity Way of measuring: In the dedication of
complete porosity, it truly is required that most nonconnecting along with
interconnecting pores be accounted for. FLUID SATURATIONS: Methods for the
determination of reservoir liquid saturations in place consist in analyzing
reservoir core selections for drinking water and essential oil, the saturation in gas being obtained by
big difference since the quantity of the saturations in the 3 fluids is usually equal to
unity. As a general practice an easy procedure should be to determine this particular
saturation of your sample by a suitable approach and then to measure the total
loss of fat of the test on removal and blow drying. The quantity of petrol
present is then calculated by simply subtracting the weight of water located from the
total loss in weight. The techniques which may be recommended for this willpower
will be talked about briefly. Handiwork method: Water saturation may be
determined by handiwork methods such as the ASTM approach and the Leader and
Abgefahren method. Crucial solution heat method: A fluid saturation method
whick makes use of the critical solutoin tempereture has been described by
Taylor(1938). Titration technique: Another process of saturation perseverance
makes use of the titration method. Retort method: the procedures mentioned above
happen to be nearly all mixtures or changes of methoads previously described in
the availble books which have been identified satisfoctory in handling a superb
variety of primary samples with assorted requirements of rapididty and accuracy.
Different methods have been completely tested and found to be fewer desirable, like the
retort method( Yuster and Levine, 1938). The main doubt to the retort
method, nonetheless in common employ, is the cracking of the essential oil with the resluting
production of gases plus the possibility of traveling out normal water of crystallization.
Capillary pressure method: Consideringg the difficulties involved with fluid
vividness determinations via cores, Thornton and Marshall (1947) include proposed
the usage of capillary pressure curves (capillary suction vs . brine saturation) as
a substitute for the direct measurments of connate water. The process involves
the determination of air-water capillary pressure curves on selected core
examples, the perseverance of the range above water-oil contact where the
trials were properly secured, and the putting on a modification in order to decrease the
air-water capillary presuure competition to an oil-water capillary pressure.
Summarizing, fluid saturation determinations are probably the least reliable of
the measurements performed about reservoir rock and roll samples. Perhaps the best strategy
to a true solution with the problem is simply by correlation of quantitative information
from several independent calculating means, to of which have been completely reviewed just before
namely, by direct measurments of main samples through indirect measurments
through the use of capillary pressure curves.
John marshall essay
John Marshall was born in September twenty-four, 1755 in Prince Bill County, Va. When Ruben was ten, his daddy decided that they can were going to move into a valley ...
Feminine traditions essay
In our world women in many cases are pressured and conditioned to adapt to traditional womanly standards. During the past fifty possibly even years females have begun to find modes ...
Web class essay
How to Move From Class-Room to Web-Room as Easily as Possible 1 ) 0 FUZY Getting your program onto the internet (WWW) is the most suitable done by using a ...
Hamlet soliloquies essay
In William Shakespeares? Hamlet? there are several major soliloquies that reveal the character of Hamlet. In this newspaper I will be analyzing and discussing how these types of four soliloquies ...
Titanic legal responsibility essay
April 13, 1912, the ship that even The almighty could not drain met a great untimely death. The unsinkable R. M. S. Titanic ship set out upon its first voyage ...
Douglas macarthur essay
Douglas MacArthur, the boy of the high-ranking military determine, Arthur MacArthur, was born in Little Rock and roll, Arkansas, upon 26th January, 1880. Even though previously a poor scholar, more ...
Television family members essay
Television is not just a form of entertainment, but it is a wonderful form of examine of societys view relating to its people. This analyze focuses on a brief history ...
Flashbulb storage essay
Violence inside the Media Before the average American chld leaves elementry college, researchers estemate the have witnessd 8. 000 killers on television, can it be really a issue why America ...
The pros and cons about legalizing cannabis essay
Mainstream versus Alternative Multimedia, who can we consider? The Diary of Press Studies Article writer Discussion of the legalization of marijuana introduces two key issues those who are pro- marijuana ...