Most of the poetry in the 17th 100 years was seriously romantic, concentrating on damsels and decadent parties where the Roman wine Our god Bacchaus ruled supreme. Amongst the movements’ teachings was the thought of “Carpe Diem” – the Latin key phrase for “seize the day”.
Herrick, fascinated with this ancient philosophy, centered many of his poems on the theme, cautioning people to employ their period wisely. Robert Herrick was one of the “Tribe of Ben”, a group of poets who adopted and had been inspired by works in the dramatist Ben Jonson. The Cavalier Poets were seen while followers of Ben Jonson because, inside the words of Professor Jennifer Mooney, “they drank with, rhymed with and patterned themselves after Jonson. ” The identity “Cavalier” was handed to the group as they had been a movement who believed in living life to the full. Anniina Jokinen states: “They treat life cavalierly, without a doubt, and sometimes they treat poetic convention cavalierly too” They glorified the ordinary rather than wonderful historical or perhaps fantastical epics.
However it isn’t just this group of poets that Herrick is usually connected with, good results . the Carpe Diem poets such as Toby Marvell who had been the author in the famous “To His Coy Mistress” and Christopher Marlowe. This dissertation will look at the texts: “All Things Corrosion and Die”, “To Live Merrily and also to Trust to Good Verses”, “To Daffodils”, “To Foundation of Tulips”, “Corinna’s Removed a Maying” and the famous “To the Virgins to generate Much of Time”. Each of these poems are very related, however there are many differences that render all of them unique. This dissertation aims to analyse Herricks’ carpe diem poetry by studying the techniques employed by Robert Herrick in his exploration of the concept.
A single reason why Robert Herrick’s poetry is so successful is because it can be simple. Part of this ease is helped by symbolism that is used to reflect the ideas of mortality and carpe diem. These kinds of symbols happen to be universally recognized and give the poems not simply richness although also an element of clarity that is certainly gracefully cared for.
This simplicity is remarkably evident in “To the Virgins, To generate Much of Time”: “Gather Ye rosebuds although ye may well Old Period is still a traveling by air But this same flower that smiles today Tomorrow will probably be Dying. ” This 1st stanza exhibits Herrick’s effective simplicity. Dorothy Gilead claims that the initial line may be the “distillation in the carpe diem message” as it states a mere fact of life: we are here for a limited time only and we need to use our time smartly. It is the universality that has made Herrick’s poetry last through the entire ages. This individual uses parallels that are timeless. The rosebuds in this stanza symbolize the fruits of life – things all of us set out to gain in our lives.
The “rosebuds” could be anything at all – they may be ordinary material objects like a house, or something more sentimental just like love. Herrick advises all of us though, to get them although we are small, for youth quickly passes away. Therefore the rosebuds not only stand for the items and aspirations of lifestyle, but existence its home for we all too “tomorrow will be dying”.
A similar utilization of flowers as being a symbol from the briefness of life is apparent in “To Blossoms”: “Fair pledges of any fruitful forest, Why do ye show up so quickly? ” Flower is, naturally , the blossoming of bouquets. However , despite their obvious beauty, that they quickly wither and die. In this composition Herrick looks upon the dying blossoms of a tree. Through this Herrick recognizes that these flowers show how it is the mother nature of all things pass away.
This is evident as Herrick describes how in the leaves one can possibly read “how soon points can end”, and by stating: “Like you awhile, they glide Into the grave. ” Thus, Herrick is contrasting the lives of blossom, to the lives of human beings to find that they are both the same: they are both mortal and must die. By choosing something like Bloom that passes away so quickly, Herrick exaggerates the lack of the individual life span but in doing so shows that we too life intended for only a brief time. This kind of idea is additionally shown in “All Items Decay and Die”, which concerns on its own not with blossoms, but rather together with the mighty trees of the forest.
Again Herrick shows how no one is usually invincible simply by showing that even the mightiest of forest has to “decay and die”. Nothing resist time nevertheless time by itself. Herrick shows this theme by using the thought of trees.
Trees, unlike blossoms, live to get hundreds of years. However they are not immortal and must therefore die. Herrick displays this kind of by producing: “The full sovereign coin of all plants, the maple Droops, dead and falls without the cleavers stroke. ” What is interesting is the make use of the word “sovereign” as it’s connotations to royalty and King. Idea of power and nobility is repeated earlier in the poem if the oak can be described as “the proud dictator of a condition like wood”, which once more implies strength, power and authority. So just why does Herrick use this sort of words to spell out a tree?
The answer is because he wanted to demonstrate that the enormous fall too – that they can be not immune to the rules of the cielo. Therefore it is apparent that by using vegetation Herrick has created an easy, yet powerful parallel of human existence that talks about just how brief our lives are and shows why exactly we should “seize the day”. Herrick’s poetry, though, features other tips which light up the concept of the carpe diem.
The bouquets in “To the Virgins” and “To a Pickup bed of Tulips” not only represent life, tend to be used to represent virgin females. These two poems urge the virgins “Be not coy, but work with your time And while ye may well go get married to: For having dropped but once your excellent You may permanently tarry. ” Robert Herrick strikes a note here as it is human nature that will put things off and to claim “There’s constantly tomorrow”, but once we “forever tarry” in that case we shall under no circumstances do what we planned – time can catch up about us.
In other words: seize the day! “To a Bed of Tulips” has an almost the same last stanza as again Herrick repeats his concept to those single maidens simply by saying – “Come virgins, then to see Your frailties, and bemoan ye Intended for, lost like these, twill end up being As time has never regarded ye” Once more Robert Herrick is pulling a parallel between his two subject matter as he compares these virgins with the Tulip glasses. In this last stanza this individual describes the virgins while frail and insignificant in the world.
This magnifying mirrors the rest of the poem as the tulips “quickly wither” and that they, like the virgins, will die “even since the meanest flower. ” However , these stanzas’ demonstrate another area of Herrick which, 400 years following these poems were created, is not really popular. To the modern reader, who may well regard these stanzas because sexist, might find these final verses because an anti climax. Following three attractively lyrical poems of bouquets and rising suns, a final stanza talking about marriage being a woman’s best ambition certainly will not appeal towards the career girl of the 21st century. So why, then, are these types of poems continue to popular inside our modern times?
The answer then is quite simply the fact that earlier verses using their simple imagery and the parallels of the sun and plants make up for a somewhat old ideology. Flowers though are not the only make use of symbolism in Herrick’s writings. The sun as well as its daily way of dawn and sunset has also featured in some of his poems. For example in “To the Virgins” the other stanza starts: “As yet the early-rising sun Has not attain’d his noon. ” This shows how the suns rising and setting are used to represent the cycle of your life.
Perhaps no uncommon thing in literature or perhaps religion, although effective since it not only parallels life and death just about all holds backlinks to the idea of heaven and eternal lifestyle – a great ironic feature in poems about fatality. The connection with heaven is evident in “To the Virgins” when in verse two Herrick states: “The glorious light fixture of paradise, the sun The bigger he’s a getting The quicker will his race end up being run And nearer he can to placing. ” What Herrick says here is that point is wearing as well as that life is drawing to a close for the sun is nearly setting on a day and on a existence. However it may be the first range in this stanza – “The glorious light of nirvana, the sun” – that is the most effective.
They have connotations with God, the land of eternal youth and joy – the immortality it does not exist within our physical community. The word “glorious” makes the sun seem amazing, brilliant, also because “glory” is also a biblical term, this echoes this link with God and heaven. “Lamp” though is actually a curious term to be used to describe some thing of this kind of importance and beauty. Yet it works, pertaining to the sun is definitely the light of Heaven, which will all people hope to be each of our final destination and homeland.
Roger B Rollin says in his study of Herricks’ poetry that the guidelines of the atmosphere mirror the guidelines of all existence – whether it is animal or perhaps plant, and this we are fated to die before we come to our prime. This discussion is extremely appropriate as the sun’s day to day routine of increasing and setting is a looking glass of human being life that begins in child hood and ends in a withering old age. While Herrick is using symbolism and imagery expertly in his job he has created many gorgeous poems which usually, despite out-of-date views on the role of women in world, remain favourite verses with this modern regarding equal opportunity.
Another reason though, why Herrick’s poems remain popular today is his cultural testing: namely the influence of Greek and classical mythology in his writings. Greek mythology, which appears frequently in Herrick’s writings, has significantly influenced his poetry. They would. R. Swardson says: “all the girls are Antheas and Julias and Corinnas and the ‘sea-scourged merchant’ is likely to Ithaca. ” In fact this kind of is this influence that a few critiques suggest that it displays a faithfulness to the pagan spirit.
However as Robert H Denning states: “It is a humanistic fusion which is neither specifically Christian nor classical-pagan, but instead an innovative blend. ” This “imaginative blend” produces what Denning describes because “ceremonial universality” – and therefore the poem can appeal ceremonially to all faiths and generations. This really is most plainly seen in “Corinna’s Going A Maying” exactly where classical misconceptions are used in harmony with additional Christian ideas and rituals to describe the idyllic British countryside in spring. For example , in the initial stanza Herrick describes the birds because singing “hymns” and it being a “sin” to nevertheless be inside for Dawn.
Yet , whilst those two references happen to be plainly Christian the description of the “Titan” on the eastern hill can be distinctly time-honored. The celebration of May is also placed in lore as its a large number of myths demonstrate that it is a questionnable festival about fertility the moment sexual relations, which were generally not accepted in Herrick’s day, were tolerated. May Day is used in “Corinna’s Gone A Maying” as a celebration of youth.
This really is effective as May Day time is the gathering of planting season and early spring is children. This is evident in the poem as Herrick creates: “There’s not really a budding kid this day But is acquired up and gone to generate May; A package of children, ere this kind of, is come” This details the festive spirit of the occasion: a mood that is portrayed usually in Herrick’s writings. By simply depicting the boys and girl’s since “budding” he reflects the setting in the warm planting season day as well as the flowers starting in the sun of May.
Herrick also demonstrates it is a party of junior by stating it is the girls and boys getting up and describing the youth because coming to bring in May. Nevertheless the moral vacation is noticeable later in the poem when ever Herrick says: “Many a kiss, the two odd and in many cases; Many a look, too, continues to be sent From out the eye, love’s firmament” This area of the poem shows the cultural looseness of May Day as Herrick illustrates the flirtatious character of the day simply by describing the way the kisses are “odd and even” which gives the impression that many improvements have been built that day. Also, by writing how love has become sealed simply by looks via “out the eye” Herrick shows the festivity plus the sexual nature of the day.
Swardson suggests though, that Herrick is only able to create this relaxed atmosphere within a strict culture because “…the classical framework or setting allows a temporary suspension of Christian standards. It may provide, in the modern expression, a ‘moral holiday'”. Quite simply, because Herrick uses the two strict Christian doctrines plus the more generous atmosphere of pagan May Day and classical tips he is able to create a poem applying looser morals than would normally be permitted. This ‘moral holiday’ that Swardson describes is essential in Carpe Diem poetry pertaining to Christian recommendations generally marketed patience, simpleness and in some factions it discouraged the art of merry making.
Herrick though, uses the looser guidelines of Paganism along in harmony with Christianity to create a legitimate, yet festive establishing. The joyous setting can be fundamental in Herricks’ poems as he uses it to mirror the idea of living life to the full and seizing the morning. This technique can be evident in “To Live Merrily and to Trust to Good Verses” as yet again classical mythology plays its part. This poem is approximately the ‘ceremony of mirth’ and uses mythology to develop as in “Corrinna’s Gone a Maying”, a loose and festive environment in which to portray the theme of appropriating the day. “To Live Merrily and to Trust to Very good Verses” employs typical Herrick structure in the simplicity and lyrical style. Each verse toasts a classical copy writer like Homer.
However the composition starts by conveying the flowering earth. “Now is the coming back mirth, Nor cheek or tongue be dumb; To get with the flow’ry earth The golden pomp is come. ” Swardson says in his article “Herrick and the Service of Mirth” that the festivity of the moment is linked to the flowering in the earth (spring). This is evidently very similar to Corinna’s Gone A Maying which in turn also uses the gaiety of May Day being a platform for the theme of seizing the afternoon. The subject of the poem is slightly different than others though as Herrick recognizes there is an element of growing old in writing – after all Homer and Ovid were most writers many centuries before and yet they were alive in Herrick’s day, and are still alive in ours through their art.
Swardson describes this by saying: “Death is conquered not simply by renouncing the ‘frail world’ whose magnificence dies, in favour of an long lasting other globe, but by simply realizing many successfully the sweetness and mirth in the organic world. Hence you do not cry quits verses nevertheless ‘trust to good verses’. ” Swardson explains how by spotting the splendor of this temporary world, instead of be dedicated to that with the next you could become immortal. This can be evident in the poetry as it consistently provides the beauty of the world. Therefore Herrick sees his poetry because immortalizing himself.
The poem “His Poetry His Pillar” displays this kind of theory as it describes how Herrick worries ensuing death and expectations that his poetry shall remain when he is gone. This is an unusual idea in Carpe Diem poetry. Nearly all writers through this movement published poems that seemed “as fleeting while life and youth themselves” in the desire of effective their lover to players caution to the wind. The Sonneteers even though, wrote poems for a purpose similar to Herrick – in the hope that they can and their adores could become immortal.
A part of “To Live Merrily and to Trust to Good Verses” festivity though, is due to their structure. The majority of Herrick’s beautifully constructed wording uses a straightforward ABAB vocally mimic eachother scheme, and “To Live Merrily” is no exception. Although the poem is definitely longer compared to the majority of Herrick’s poetry (which is usually no more than four poems long) is simple rhyme system and streaming verse aid to mirror the party ambiance in which the composition is set.
The majority of Herrick’s poetry is musical – short and songlike. Most of his poems will be no more than 4 verses and use only 6 to seven syllables per line. This factor, plus the simple vocally mimic eachother scheme produce a quick and fast moving lyrical passage. This is apparent in the poem “To a Bed of Tulips”. “Bright Tulips, we know You had you’re coming hither And fading time really does know That en must quickly wither. ” This technique leads to a composition that is short and to the idea (another likeness between Herrick and his guy Cavaliers). This simple, song-like rhythm and rhyme system are very effective because they help to produce that happy party ambiance that is as good portrayed in “To Live Merrily” also to Trust to Good Verses”.
However another interpretation at times offered is flowing beat mirrors the reality of fatality. Critic Gordon Braden details Herrick’s lyrical style because almost childlike for he admits that in his publication “The Classics and English language Renaissance Poetry” that Herrick’s poetry is a lot like: “That of childlike discovery and wonder, a short although bright teachers of attention continually distracted by something new. ” This really is evident as in “To the Virgins” each parallel – the sun, bouquets, the information of junior – are dealt with quickly before Herrick begins his new channel of thought.
The idea of Herricks’ poetry as being child-like in aspects is additionally evident in the subject matter as although his theme is usually serious, his glorification of the sun associated with the joyful party ambiance creates anything more playful and fun. Yet not every Herrick’s lyrical poems abide by the same composition. “To Blossoms” and “To Daffodils” are slightly more irregular and complicated in rhythm and vocally mimic eachother. “To Blossoms” consists of one stanza of eighteen lines, its rhyme scheme is In “To Daffodils” we have two stanzas of 11 lines with only the periodic rhyme just like “soon” and “noon” and “spring” and “thing. ” The number of syllables in these two poems is additionally not steady.
In “To Blossoms” lines range from having four to eight syllables and in “To Daffodils” there exists from two to several. These poetry, you presume on initial glance, would have a more rambling rhythm rather than flowing type of the majority of Herrick’s other poems, and yet when ever read the poems retain Herrick’s musical appear. This is managed simply by the combination of both equally styles.
By way of example at the start of “To Daffodils” we have his more regular sound: “Fair Daffodils, we weep to see You excitement away therefore soon Up to now the early increasing sun Hasn’t attained his noon. ” This 1st part of the poem uses the iambic feet. What this means is that the stresses fall season on every second syllable and for that reason when studying the composition the stresses always fall on the last word at each range creating a sing song impact that suits Herrick’s lyrical style. Yet, in the second part of the poem: rather than using his regular framework he utilizes a cross between long and short lines using enjambment.
For example lines five to seven use a pattern of one six syllable line placed between two, two syllable lines. This kind of part of the poem is particularly successful as by simply putting “Stay, stay” two times on the one line the loudspeaker sounds more urgently pleading as believed the daffodils would wither away before his eyes unless this individual begged all of them not to.
This kind of structure with the two portion stanza is definitely repeated in the second verse as once again it begins with Herrick’s usual musical form, just before changing in the latter half to a even more irregular 1. This second half of the stanza uses enjambment to put an emphasis on selected words. “We die Or if you hours perform, and dried out Away” The fact that words “We die” are placed on their own series reminds someone that we talk about the same fortune as the daffodils. The effect is shown with the word “away” through putting this kind of emphasis on these types of words celebrate a more lick rhythm.
The way in which in which the phrase “Away” is put on a line of its own implies the empty finality of death. “To Blossoms” runs on the similar approach as “To Daffodils” because once more there exists a contrast among long and short lines ranging from 8-10 syllables to four. The rhyme structure is also more complex with an ABBCCB structure. These factors assistance to produce a more interesting beat as it boosts and slows down. For example in Stanza 1: Fair pledges of a successful tree How come do ye fall therefore fast?
The date is usually not so past” The longer line followed by the two short lines makes a fast 1st two lines, but when typical Herrick composition dictates that line two should be followed by a one other line of 8-10 syllables and it does not it creates a reduced rhythm which makes line three stand out. This really is evident to a greater extent of the last lines of each stanza, that are also the shortest of them costing only four syllables. The lines “And go at last” and “Into the grave” are the many noticeable of those. The words “Into the grave” end the poem on the chilling notice.
The fact the fact that poem is fairly fast paced up to that point signifies that the words are given a particular pressure and uncover a particularly abrupt and unexpected end – the very characteristics of existence. Herrick reflects the relative simplicity of his story with an exceedingly uncomplicated structure, both equally with vocally mimic eachother and beat. Even his more complicated compared to still hold the musical quality that his simpler poetry contain. This is certainly one of Herricks’ merits as an more than adorned composition would conflict with the content material and will ruin his poetry.
However, when he ventures slightly outwith his simplified sphere he creates quite effective structures that help to emphasis the topic as can be viewed in “To Daffodils” and “To Blossoms”. In conclusion it is evident that Herrick uses structure, symbolism and an interesting blend of faith based ceremonies in his exploration of the theme Carpe Diem. Through the simplicity inside the rhythm and rhyme of his poems, Herrick provides invoked the fleeting standard of living and the splendor of the world all of us live in.
The two of these ideas are portrayed in the articles of these poems through the use of symbolism and imagery. Yet the reasons why Herrick, despite having to some extent dated viewpoints on the position of women, is still a poet of our time is due to his convenience and “ceremonial universality”. To describe his poetry one would have to say “simple although beautiful”, to get throughout his writings Herrick pays respect to the its heyday of the globe and uses it showing how short and momentary our occurrence is a seite an seite that all can easily understand.
Herrick’s blend of different cultures and religions in his writing has also helped to immortalize him as it offered his poetry an acceptable but care free moral strengthen that remains relevant and enjoyable today. Bibliography A. Leigh Deneef This Poetick Leturgie Duke University Press 1974 ISBN 082230323X L. R Swardson Poetry as well as the Fountain of sunshine Allen and Unwin ISBN: 0048210161 1962 Robert L. Denning Robert Herrick’s Traditional Ceremony David Hopkin’s College or university Press 1967 Roger W. Rollin Robert Herrick Twayne Publishers 1992 ISBN 0805770127 Sarah Gilead Ungathering En Rosebuds: Herrick’s misreading of Carpe Diem Critisism: A Quarterly for Literature as well as the Arts 85 Other Methods Used Websites: http://www.luminarium.org http://people.whitman.edu/~dipasqtm/herrick.htm http://athena.english.vt.edu/~jmooney/renmats/cavaliers.htm http://www.bartleby.com/217/0107.html http://encarta.msn.com/text_761566707___2/Versification.html
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