Present exploration paper attempts to provide the analysis of modernity’s and anti-modernity’s representation in Stoker’s masterpiece Dracula, which was created in the end of Victorian time in England. The elements of modern quality and anti-modernity are followed on the thematic, discursive and semantic amounts to establish interrelation and level of resistance between them, and functions that they perform in the analyzed text message.
Modernity and anti-modernity are studied as wide sociable, historic, social, philosophic types, which explain certain metabolism of contemporary society, including monetary and ideological structure, value system, male or female relations, the degree of the production causes and technology development.
Considering these sizes, modernity and anti-modernity symbolize essentially opposing phenomena, reflecting radical alterations, which happened in the world.
Nevertheless , present paper proceeds from the hypothesis that modernity is not only progressive evolution of culture, such as democracy, rapid economical development and liberalization, nevertheless has its dark side, which will unites that with anti-modernity. The pointed out dark side is usually reflected in the negative effects of technology, consumerism, commercial ethics in addition to the development of sociable Darwinism, racism etc .
, which were present in modern Even victorian society of England.
Based on these bookings, the thesis is looked after that modernity and anti-modernity, represented in Stoker’s story are essentially interwoven and linked. Modern quality and Anti-modernity as Simple Social, Social and Philosophical Categories Just before comprehensive research of the reflection of modern quality and anti-modernity’s in Stoker’s Dracula, speculate if this trade to present all their basic shape, seen throughout the prism of our own way. In the Western social and political thought modernity was traditionally characterized by several significant cultural, socio-economic and philosophical developments.
Noticed from the philosophical and ideological perspectives, it can be said that modernity should be viewed as emancipation of free subject through the burden of se?orial oppression, the establishment expertise and progress as the driving forces of creation and becoming mindful about the flow of the past (Habermas, 1987). From the socio-economic standpoint, modernity should be comprehended as the rise of capitalism and market economic climate, individualism and rapid advancement technology and productive causes, which spiraled the flight of man needs and future viewpoints.
Modernity is likewise characterized by rapid institutionalization of new classes of workers and capitalists, fast urbanization and industrialization, which may have changed the landscape of human world and its self-consciousness (Giddens, 12). Another important dimension of modern quality is found in the introduction of representative democracy and nationality and institution of the wide ranging human, civil and personal rights.
Additionally, such innovations fostered emancipation of women and furnishing their particular new identity as the equal representatives of mankind, having rights for creativity and energetic way of life (Jarzombek, 2000). Anti-modernity is often regarded as the total reverse to modernity due to the retrograde social order with personal, economic dominance of feudal of post-feudal elites, old-fashioned mindset, spiritual fanaticism, the absence of individual rights and secularism (Giddens, 1998).
However , as the thesis looked after in the present research paper says, modernity is normally characterized by the similar bad trends in the critical believed. For instance, Aderezo and Horkheimer argue that technology in their particular became an essentially traditional element, which is often used as the tool of power to control and direct human passions. Technology displays the prominence of instrumental reason, which seeks to rationalize violence and control and is totalitarian in mother nature, which may be noticed in toto in Nazi concentration camps and industrial factories (Adorno and Horkheimer, 34).
The identical point is defended simply by Foucault, whom claims that modernity unbalanced the application of Proportion and made this the tool of control and oppression, as in the situation with education system, prisons and mental hospitals (Foucault, 13). Additionally, Marxist review of modern quality is well known due to its debunking of capitalist exploitation, limited characteristics of rep democracy, incomplete liberation of girls etc . No less important may be the critique of modernist ideologies, especially in the context of the present research newspaper.
Such ideologies as racism and Interpersonal Darwinism are inherently modern day as for case in point Amin argues (Amin, 34). Racism is inherently traditional ideology, which has been particularly dominating in Victorian England, because the device for legitimizing its colonial time dominance above ‘third-world’ lenders. Its simple ideological presumptions would be quickly seen in the further examination if Stoker’s Dracula, although here it will suffice to say that racism is substantially affected by Eurocentrism, that is the ideology, which évidence the dominance of modern European civilization over allegedly, under-developed, barbaric peoples etc .
Modernity and Anti-Modernity in Stoker’s Dracula’s: analysis of reflection and distraction. Central philosophical appeal of Dracula, which is placed on the thematic surface, is a unbound struggle between modern quality and anti-modernity, which are, yet , presented one-sidedly in the Stoker’s novel (McNally, 34). The division range between modern quality and anti-modernity lies in antagonism between Dracula and Westerners (Englishmen and Dutch Vehicle Helsing), who also oppose the brutal and horrendous invader into apparently just and free society.
Therefore , it may be reckoned that from the point of view of narration, anti-modernity is reflected predominantly in the protagonist of Dracula (Hughes, 2000). It should be noted that such evident polarization between American modernity and outsiders’ traditionalism and barbarism is very attribute of British ‘invasion literature’, which depicts ‘third world’ peoples as the immediate menace to English society and represents these people because lacking of modern values of freedom, liberation, English benefits of dignity, self-respect etc .
The latter elements of Dracula’s racialization will be further traced inside the analysis in the dark side of modernity in Stoker’s new. Positive and widely recognized features of modernity are present in Stoker’s novel. Gender dimensions of modern quality in Stoker’s novel The first vital element of modern quality, which is apparent in Dracula, is changing gender patterns of modern European society. The changing position of female is evident in the Mina Harker’s protagonist, who is depicted while emancipated female, having the equivalent voice inside the relations with men and using this kind of modern technology as typewriter.
There is no denying the importance to the fact that many qualities of the ‘new woman’ can also be seen in Mitt Harker, such as deference to man superiority and obvious economic independence. It is evident that the latter elements of modern quality are reflected in Dracula predominantly in non-critical fashion. The woman’s emancipation in this kind of interpretation of modernity can be considered woman’s directly to engage in organization activity, independently realize her own needs and needs. Concurrently the repressive nature of market willpower and exploitation, commoditization of woman’s body system and needs will be ignored.
(Giddens, 1998). Hence, modernization of gender status is partially reflected in Stoker’s Dracula, paying primary emphasis on the positive consequences of modernity to get gender independence. However , it should be noted that Mina’s protagonist is definitely not completely modern, since she is substantially affected by the religious and moral Conservativism, existing in Victorian England. Her maternal nature and social work as school mistress still exemplify these conservative status of women within Even victorian society.
One other crucial motif that epitomizes the prominence of anti-modern gender contact and values in Even victorian society could possibly be traced in depicting Dracula as lovemaking seducer of morally real and religious English females. For example , Leonard Wolf aimed to the sex implications of blood exchange between Dracula and his patients. Moreover, it is evident that in this respect Dracula is depicted using traditional eugenic and racial prejudices against Black men, who had been represented since sexually addicted in Victorian racist task.
The intimate relations between them and English women had been strictly forbidden not only in the genetic viewpoint (the quality of white colored race), nevertheless also from moral, mainly because outsiders damage British can certainly moral pride and tranquility. As Wolf notes in this respect, ‘Dracula features embedded in it a really disturbing psychosexual allegory in whose meaning I am uncertain Stoker completely understood: there is a demonic force at the office in the world in whose intent is to eroticize girls.
In Dracula we see just how that power transforms Sharon Westenra, an attractive nineteen-year-old virgin, into a shameless slut’ (Wolf, 15). These idea can be utilized because sufficient data to the fact that rendering of women in Dracula to some extent should be recognized as a means to get indulging Victorian male’s sex imagination (Stoker, 54-56). Three female vampires, met by Harker in the Dracula’s fort should be interpreted as simultaneously Victorian mens dream and nightmare.
All their sexuality and brutality act as the object of desire and curse. Here, traditional Christian theme of banned object arises. The rigid fixation of women’s status in the Victorian England was one of the main reasons intended for intensification of Imaginary component of male subjectivity: a woman experienced two choices ” being either a virgin or a partner. Notwithstanding the new role of sexual fantasy, moral imperatives still worked and it is apparent in your episode of killing Sharon, when the lady transformed into the vampire vixen.
The latter metaphor may be construed as meaning warning against breaking meaningful order existing in Even victorian society. With that said, the portrayal of gender in Stoker’s novel is definitely characterized by the interconnection of modernist and anti-modernist developments. On the one particular side, one of the main characters can be presented since modern 3rd party woman and the additional, the flavor of Victorian meaningful and lovemaking control over females is still seen, particularly in the collision between it and unbound libido of Dracula.
Moreover, it has to be taken into account that modernity’s dark side of woman’s lifestyle in society is distorted and hence, the negative developments of modern quality in terms of could status aren’t adequately protected in the reviewed novel. The collision among modernity and anti-modernity at the socio-economic level. Stoker’s story represents profound inner turmoil between anti-modernist world of faith, slavery, bias etc . and modern rise of positivist science, Enlightenment, secularism and technology.
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