Obsessive Addictive Disorde

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Even though mental condition has a large prevalence price, the prevalence rate of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders is relatively low. Because mass media, such as videos and tv shows, is the greatest renseigner of the general public today, characterizations of the mentally ill, just like those experiencing obsessive-compulsive or a related disorder, can create or negate stigma and stereotypes. In an attempt to reduce stigma around mental disorders and encourage the mentally unwell to seek support, visual media’s portrayals in the mentally unwell must be examined for correct depictions. The Aviator is one such film that brands a mental illness, obsessive-compulsive disorder especially. The main figure, Howard Hughes, is analyzed to determine if perhaps he complies with the criteria intended for obsessive-compulsive disorder and if his portrayal de-stigmatizes or even more stigmatizes mental illness.

Although the life-time prevalence of any mental disorder is 50%, and the one-year frequency is 25%, the frequency of different mental illness may differ within these types of statistics (Sue, Sue, Sue, Sue, 2013). For example , Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD), which is seen as anxiety-producing obsessions and anxiety-reducing compulsions, includes a one-year prevalence of 1% in American adults, approximately number of 2 . 2 , 000, 000 people (“Facts statistics”). Approximately 50. 6% of these circumstances are labeled as severe, together with the average regarding symptom onset being 19 years (“Obsessive compulsive disorder among adults”). According to the Anxiousness and Despression symptoms Association of America, the classification of disorders that Obsessive-compulsive disorder belongs, anxiety attacks, is the most prevalent mental disorder in America. All those who have an anxiety disorder are six times more likely to be in the hospital for a psychiatric illness too. Anxiety disorders can be comorbid with bipolar disorder, eating disorders, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, sleep problems, substance abuse, mature attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, chronic soreness, and fibromyalgia (“Facts statistics”). Although Obsessive-compulsive disorder contains a low prevalence rate, the word “OCD” could be heard in accordance conversation. Yet , the growing recognition of this mental disease may not completely be because of the large number of people affected by this disorder, nevertheless instead through its introduction by numerous media varieties. Although mental disorders as a whole have a high prevalence price, OCD’s fairly low prevalence rate (1. 6% life time prevalence) ensures that many people obtain data from multimedia, especially movies and tv shows. However , digital media buyers not only acquire whatever info on mental disorders is offered, but the judgment and confident or unfavorable associations relevant to the disorder as well. Because a community’s awareness of a mental disorder may impact a great affected individual’s pursuit of treatment, in order to decrease stigma of numerous mental disorders, the accuracy and reliability in describing a mental disorder in media portrayals of individuals with mental illnesses has to be evaluated in in order to effectively inform open public perception of mental condition in a de-stigmatizing manner.

Motion picture Introduction


One of media characterization of mental illnesses is definitely the depiction of obsessive-compulsive disorder in The Aviator. This film was described by Martin Scorsese and was released in the United States on January 24, 2004. Leonardo The future actor stars while Howard Barnes, Cate Blanchett as Katharine Hepburn, John C. Reilly as Noah Dietrich, and Kate Beckinsale as Ava Gardner (“The Aviator (2004)”).

This film is a biographical video of the existence of director and aviator Howard Hughes from the past due 1920’s to mid-1940’s. The Aviator pertains Howard Hughes’s great achievements, such as the creation of the movie, Hell’s Angels, breaking modern aviation records, traveling by air around the world in record time, the trip of Forzudo, and the creation Trans World Airlines, around his increasing anxiety, concerns, and compulsions. The movie depicts both Hughes’s public your life, including public perception of him, wonderful private your life, containing his relationships with Katharine Hepburn and Ava Gardner. The film recently had an estimated $110, 000, 500 budget, although only built $858, 021 in the United States during its opening weekend. Nevertheless, The Aviator has won 5 Oscar awards, 3 Golden Monde, 4 BAFTA awards, 1 Screen Actors Guild Prize, and 1 Movie in the Year AFI award (“The Aviator (2004)”).

Impact on Critics and People and Public Reception

The Aviator currently features 7. your five out of 10 superstars on the Internet Movie Data source and some out of 5 stars on Amazon . com. Although opinions on the Net Movie Databases praised the cinematic artistry of the film and the actors’ performance, one common criticism in the film is usually summarized in a review named “Falling Short of Greatness¦Again, inch which was published near the movie’s 2004 relieve date. In respect to this reviewer, whose assessment is rated as the most beneficial, The Aviator does not completely satisfy the viewers because the film appears to don’t have any unifying idea. The author focuses on the a shortage of a true psychological journey. The only reference to obsessive-compulsive disorder is Hughes’ luxury of “personal obsessions” (“The Aviator (2004)”). Similarly, Amazon online reviews pointedly praise the art direction and behaving, marveling within the depiction of Howard Barnes himself, instead of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The one clear review that addresses the portrayal of a mental disease was a 2-star Amazon review entitled “A great existence ” a mediocre film. ” This kind of review defined Howard Hughes as a Jekyll and Hyde character, “paralyzed by chaos one moment¦and in another moment fighting intended for his organization. ” This kind of review outlined some of the mistakes in the portrayal of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the film and called for answers for Hughes’ paranoia about disease. However, the assessment still declares the movie is worth watching inspite of his or her 2-star rating (Ujnat).

Manohla Dargis’s article in The New York Times explains The Aviator as a “disappointingly hollow account of Hughes’s early your life, ” (Dargis). Although the assessment does not talk about the depiction of obsessive-compulsive disorder, it praises the film’s usage of camera motions and picture cuts to portray characters’ thoughts. Roger Ebert’s assessment, which provided the film 4 out of 5 stars, has no mention of obsessive-compulsive disorder, but commends the use of effects and cinematography.

As the Aviator can be described as biographical film whose director is known pertaining to the superb make use of editing, skill direction, and narration, the reviews largely focused on the historical accuracy and cinematography, rather than the portrayal of obsessive-compulsive disorder, inside the film.

Film Analysis


Just as the majority of testimonials praise Matn Scorsese’s cinematography, any person, with or with out a basic familiarity with filming, can easily appreciate the making of The Aviator. Although there is an over-all consensus around the cinematographic accomplishment of the film, the main matter is the interpretation of obsessive-compulsive disorder: how a editing attempts to explain the causes and effects of the disorder in a true and de-stigmatizing manner, without stereotypes. Due to that, reviewers, just like Carlo Cavagna, state that Scorsese “has again made a film about person versus himself, ” implying that the film successfully captured the internal have difficulty related to mental disorders (Cavagna).

Throughout the film, cause-effect editing is usually distinctly found in an attempt to illustrate likely explanations to get Howard Hughes’s obsessive-compulsive disorder. The starting scene in the movie attempts to present an etiological perspective of the disorder by illustrating social, psychological, and neurological factors which may have written for Hughes’ phrase of OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER symptoms. Film production company begins with Howard Hughes’ mother washing him as a young boy, with the 1st image getting her make use of soap, a normal and well regarded association with OCD (1: 50). She demonstrates areas of social and psychological elements, such as cognitive distortions, handling parenting, and modeling, which will affect the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder. For example , Hughes’ mother verbalizes her anxiety about diseases, just like cholera and typhus. Your woman instills dread by asking questions, such as, “Do you know what they can perform to you? ” and proclaiming, “You’re not safe, ” (2: 10). Your woman models coping with these fanatical thoughts simply by bathing, washing, and punctuational words, including “quarantine. inch The effects of these early experiences are displayed later in the film, through parallel photos that demonstrate the raising severity of Howard Hughes’ hand cleaning and transliteration of words and phrases such as “quarantine” and spoken repetition of phrases. The audience is able to gain a general etiological view of obsessive-compulsive disorder by visualizing the pairing between early theories and later obsessive-compulsive responses to stress, hopefully reducing the stereotype that a mental illness is definitely controlled selection of an individual.

The shot reverse shot editing series is used later in the film to comparison the communications of Howard Hughes fantastic competitor, Juan Trippe. A door sets apart the two guys in every taken to demonstrate how Howard provides isolated himself from the globe due to his increasing relax (135: 05). This enhancing sequence demonstrates how significant Hughes’ symptoms have become on his life. The contrast between Trippe and Hughes as well serves in providing a feeling of the level to which Hughes’ life has changed: in the perfect of his life, Barnes was Tripp, well outfitted, confident, and a serious competitor. His mental disorder offers contributed to his isolation and impairment inside the social and business areas of his lifestyle. These displays help demonstrate how pervasive a mental disorder could be. Audiences realize that they would not choose to live the lifestyle Hughes does, unclothed, urinating in bottles, and unclean. This kind of combats the stereotype of mental disease as a “choice. ” Even though this depiction of obsessive-compulsive disorder combats stereotypes, it may not entirely de-stigmatize this particular mental illness due to viewers’ inability to connect with the main persona, Howard Hughes.

Art Direction

Two components of artwork direction, lumination and sound, were utilized in the chronicling of Howard Hughes’s obsessive-compulsive disorder. During the opening with the film, when Howard Hughes’s mother is usually modeling obsessive-compulsive behaviors, the light is gentle, low, and an ruby color. This may represent Hughes’ immersive start in obsessive-compulsive behaviors. The soft, warm light shows the motherly comfort and stress-relief associated in performing compulsions. Throughout the film, light power and color will stand for the pervasiveness of Howard’s OCD symptoms. During this initial scene, the obsessions and compulsions do not influence Howard to the extent that they affect his mom. The obsessions and compulsions are exterior at this point.

Throughout the middle of the film, during Hughes’s success as a movie director, the light becomes hard, manifest, and white. When walking the reddish colored carpet after his discharge of Hell’s Angels, the bright, white light bulb sensations of digital cameras and reporters represent Hughes’ distress (23: 00). Hughes’ increasing pain on the reddish carpet is paralleled through the film to highlight the progression of his obsessive-compulsive disorder (54: 22). During these views, Howard Hughes’s inappropriate replies in interactions and palm washing rituals are magnified. The harsh, white light is not just paired with reddish colored carpet moments, however , once prompted to make decisions concerning plane designs, Barnes must escape to his car in which he repeated spells the word “quarantine, ” (100: 37). A searing, light light, indicating the intensity of his disorder, brightens his confront.

For the end of the film, when Hughes offers isolated him self, his obsessive-compulsive disorder is definitely represented by a red mild that is not quite soft, yet almost. This kind of light symbolizes how encompassing Hughes’ mental illness is becoming. Instead of whizzes of light, every single scene is usually lit with red. His obsessive-compulsive disorder affects every factor of his existence, just as the brown mild represented the impact of OCD on his mom. The red color represents his feeling the necessity to perform his compulsions as well as the disorder’s finish hold on his life.

Therefore , The Aviator uses light to record Howard Hughes’ have trouble with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Soft, brownish light occurs with maladaptive learning in the child years. Harsh, light light in an increasing rate of recurrence documents his struggle with OCD symptoms, whilst remaining generally functional. The, red light depicts Hughes’ complete alliance to obsessive-compulsive disorder, until he is unable to function in most areas of his life.


The Aviator has many perspectives, 1 for each persona and how he or she views and is affected by Hughes’ mental condition. Although these points of watch inform the viewers’ own take on mental illness, an interesting form of narration employed by the film would be the voice-overs of newscasters. The voice of your newscaster overlies scenes and offers public notion of Howard. Audiences can tend to choose the same perspective of the newscaster, although the newscaster does not touch upon Hughes’ manifestation of obsessive-compulsive behaviors, people and audience’s feelings toward Hughes might generalize with their feelings toward the disorder he presents. When the media is against him continuing to spend funds on his film after the currency markets crash as well as the death of three fliers, the audience is usually against him as well (22: 00). However , when the multimedia supports his release of Hell’s Angels, saying, “It cost several million us dollars and offers four million thrills, inch the audience is definitely somewhat influenced towards his character (26: 20). Nevertheless, the most considerable perspective is that of Hughes’ two lovers, Kate Hepburn and Ava Gardner. Kate Hepburn’s initial support and maintenance of a romantic relationship with Barnes, illustrated simply by her reassurance that she could “take the wheel, ” contends together with the stereotype the mentally sick cannot have healthy, doing work relationships (51: 18). Nevertheless , this stereotype is after reinforced the moment both Hepburn and Gardner leave Barnes, and Gardner’s statement of, “You’re as well crazy for myself, ” (141: 30). The points of perspective in The Aviator encompass and portray many aspects of mental illness, nevertheless , the film attempts to use different perspective to overcome stereotypes and stigma of mental condition and is effective in some instances, whilst failing in others.

Analysis of DSM-5 Criteria

DSM-5 Criteria

The Classification and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) categorizes obsessive-compulsive and related disorders tightly to anxiety disorders. Disorders relevant to obsessive-compulsive disorder include physique dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, trichotillomania (also known as hair-pulling disorder), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, substance or perhaps medication caused obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and other specific and unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, 235).

The classification criteria to get obsessive-compulsive Disorder include the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions happen to be thoughts that occur consistently and continually which the specific views while undesired and disruptive and they are combatted through other thoughts and activities that cause anxiety and distress. Compulsions are the repeated actions or perhaps mental methods the individual feels compelled to perform in response to obsessions. Repeated behaviors incorporate washing in the hands, checking, and buying, or mental acts, such as praying, checking, repeating words silently. Compulsions are intended to overcome anxiety and distress, although they are not realistically related to the obsessions. Even though obsessions and compulsions fluctuate among persons, the most common symptoms include cleaning (obsession with contamination and compulsions of cleaning), proportion (obsession with symmetry advertisement compulsively duplicating, ordering, and counting), restricted or socially undesirable thoughts (obsessions with aggression, intimate actions, or perhaps religion and complimentary compulsions), and injury (obsessions with fears of damaging oneself or others and associated examining compulsions) (American Psychiatric Relationship, 2013, 235-236).

The next criterion for obsessive-compulsive disorder is for the obsessions and/or compulsions to be time-consuming (taking an hour or even more of each day) or triggering distress or dysfunction in social, occupational, or other areas of function. The symptoms cannot be the physiological a result of a compound or some different medical condition. Finally, the indications of obsessive-compulsive disorder cannot be better explained by some other disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, 237).

Analysis of Fulfillment of DSM-5 Standards

The first requirements of an obsessive-compulsive disorder is definitely the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Even though repeated, disturbing thoughts could be difficult to communicate in aesthetic media, The Aviator works in interacting Hughes’s demanding thoughts for the audience. These obsessions happen to be relayed by Hughes’s single mother’s verbalization of her anxiety about cholera and typhus and her refusal to go to specific places due to potential of contracting a condition (4: 10), Leonardo DiCaprio’s furrowed brow and anxious facial reactions throughout the film (31: 00), Hughes’ statements about sanitation, such as the declaration “She’s reached be clean, ” when ever concerning his planes (30: 40), his explanation of avoiding the “crap on people’s hands” for the cellophane within the steering wheel (37: 50), his expression that he perceives things which may not always be there and he worries he is shedding his head (51: 18), his sign of his inability to pass a hand towel in the bathroom (56: 00), and his declarations of paranoia (89: 35, 98: ’07, 114: 20). The presence of Howard Hughes’ repeating and upsetting thoughts permit him to meet the initially criterion of obsessive-compulsive disorder, the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions.

Yet , Hughes also demonstrates compulsions, repetitive physical actions and mental procedures, in response to his obsessions. His compulsions include his rigid separating of peas and beef on his dish and his refusal to eat when ever his meals is disrupted (35: 42), his repeated tracing of plane pointe (42: 15), his strenuous hand cleaning, to the point which his hand reduces and bleeds (56: 00, 87: 00), his burning of clothes (79: 21), his repetition of phrases, such as “Show me personally all the blueprints, ” (99: 41) and “I have to sleep, inches (124: 50), his spelling of the words “quarantine” and “llama” (119: 40, 145: 50), his distress by investigators coming in contact with his issues (117: 07) and a fingerprint on his glass, (120: 35), his dictation of his actions (125: 30), his relying on his hands (130: 20), and his germ-free zone and use of cells to open doorknobs (138: 12-15, 139: 09). These repeated behaviors in response to stress also fulfill the first criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The second criteria intended for obsessive-compulsive disorder is for the obsessions and compulsions to be time-consuming, at least 1 hour of every time, or cause significant disability in cultural, occupational, or other areas of life. Howard Hughes fulfills this qualifying criterion as well. His compulsions are incredibly time consuming that his press comments on the amount of time had to finish Hell’s Angels, his inability to make planes promptly, and the sum of screen time committed to the symptoms of his obsessions and compulsions. Over the film, and particularly towards the end, Hughes is unable to function socially, occupationally, and in various other aspects of his life. His relationships will be disrupted by simply his obsessive-compulsive disorder, he clasps his hand over his mouth regularly to stop his repetition of phrases, as well as the culmination of life impairment is when he isolates himself in his space, not even giving to relieve himself in a bath room.

The analysis of Howard Hughes’s character causes the conclusion that he can become diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder as they fulfills all the criteria intended for the disorder, including the presence of obsessions and compulsions, their labor intensive nature, and the impairment in all areas of his life, fantastic symptoms tend not to appear to be a physiological a result of a substance or some additional medical condition.


Although The Aviator’s Howard Hughes evidently meets conditions of the DSM-5’s classification of obsessive-compulsive disorder, there were still aspects of his personality wonderful behavior that cannot be the result of his diagnosis. One may conclude that he has a social anxiety disorder or is usually agoraphobic by simply his cumbersome responses in conversations and his discomfort around the red carpet (23: forty-five, 34: forty-five, 58: 40, 122: 20). He can have Asperger’s because of his fixation in the interests, just like aviation, great distress at deviance coming from norms, including when the researchers are going through his points (61: 01, 62: 20). There are also unexplained personality traits, this kind of his infatuation with dairy, which does not appear to be a compulsion reacting to an obsessive thought (38: 53), and his fear of unusual meat (60: 30). Mainly because obsessive-compulsive disorder can be comorbid with other mental illnesses, Howard Hughes’s figure may not solely depict obsessive-compulsive disorder. The audience may not find out about comorbid ailments and may attribute all symptoms to obsessive-compulsive disorder, the mental disease listed in the summary. Though characters really should not be defined only by their mental disorders, the inclusion of symptoms of other disorders may cause confusion and misperception in the public in the event that no very clear explanation of indication of a character’s mental health is given.

The Aviator is made up of both stigmatizing and de-stigmatizing portrayal of mental disease. A few stereotypes were sturdy. For example , the stereotype of any mentally sick person’s inability to have healthy relationships was reinforced through Hughes’s failed relationships with Ava and Kate, although he maintains his romantic relationship with Kate for a significant amount of time. The stereotype that the person with a mental disorder chooses being mentally unwell was sturdy by Hughes’ purposeful having from the same bottle while Kate (40: 10) wonderful success for his trial, even after showing extreme impairment (155: 0). On the other hand, the film also a new de-stigmatizing result as well. An extremely influential case in point was Hughes’ inability to pass a bath towel to a gentleman on crutches in the bath room (56: 00). Although this scene is seen as both stigmatizing, wherein the man upon crutches being a “real” health issues that prevents him via reaching the bath towels, this picture can also be seen as mental illness and physical illness on the same playing field. Both illnesses equally averted each man from reaching the towel, therefore , each condition is valid. In addition , even though Hughes has a mental illness, he is still incredibly successful in aviation, breaking records and creating flight companies. This demonstrates a person can succeed despite a mental disorder. Therefore , this film contains both stigmatizing and de-stigmatizing characterizations of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder was depicted in a somewhat frightening manner. Although this may be credited the director’s attempt to comply with Howard Hughes’s real life, followers both during the time of the movie’s release and after this were to some degree disappointment by lack of a cohesive story. This portrayal of mental illness might have been an progression in 2005, but elevated access to information concerning mental disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder could necessitate a much more de-stigmatizing and positive portrayal today.

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