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82), and through charities, that can be mentioned in this paper in previous pages.
By the middle of the 1990s, the CIA believed that inch… fifty Islamic charities ‘support terrorist organizations, or utilize individuals who are supposed of having terrorist connections'” (Gunaratna, 83). And as to the worldwide “formal” banking infrastructure of al-Qaeda – such as it was prior to September 11, 2001 – Director George T. Bush given executive purchase #13224, which in turn froze money reportedly amassing $100 , 000, 000 of companies and people believed to be associated with al-Qaeda. In his statement setting out the freezing of possessions, Bush (2001 p. 1) said “Our attack about terrorists budget is moving on. The resources of more than one hundred and fifty known terrorists, their companies, and their lenders have been frosty by the Usa. “
FINANCING the EPISODES of SEPTEMBER 11, 2001: The syndication that come from the research on the September 11, 2001 attacks (World Trade Center, Pentagon), the 9/11 Research (Strasser 2004, 390-91), edited by Steven Strasser, take into account specific dollar amounts and precise activity of payments used to perform the physical violence in the United States. To wit, the entire operation introduced by the hijackers cost between $175, 1000 and $250, 000, according to the FBI. The amount of money to support the operation was moved through Mohamed Yousef Mohamed Alqusaidi, who applied “… ‘the banking and wire services infrastructure’ with the United Arabic Emirates” (UAE) (Strasser 391).
Interestingly, the cash that was not spent by the 19 hijackers preparing for all their dastardly actions in the U. S. was sent back to Mustafa Ahmed Alhawsawi inside the UAE right before September 11, 2001. The reason, according to FBI papers quoted inside the 9/11 Research: “… The hijackers will not have planned to die because thieves, consequently they came back the money that was offered to all of them. “
COUNTERFEIT FUNDRAISING: But since to the cash needed by simply al-Qaeda members who operate small imprecise stealth cellular material and are disseminate around the world within a decentralized approach of terror, the terrorists are finding innovative ways to increase funds today. With no usage of banks and any of the systems bin Laden has set up, their particular sources of financing often reduce to counterfeit activities. “In its schooling manual, Announcement of Jihad Against the Country’s Tyrants, ‘s Qaeda advices its huisserie about the production and utilization of counterfeit foreign currency, ” including credit card fraud, publishes articles Gunaratna (83).
According to testimony before the U. S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (May twenty-five, 2005), there may be compelling facts that terrorist organizations, al-Qaeda included, happen to be raising money through the sale for counterfeited goods. Committee chair Senator Susan Collins (2005, p. 2) stated that “… the unclassified proof linking terrorism and faking is compelling. ” The senator proceeded to cite a report by Secretary Basic of Interpol that described al-Qaeda (among other groups) as having received funds through the pirating of software, DVDs, and CDs, and Senator Collins as well alluded towards the International Anti-Counterfeiting Coalition’s (IACC) report that (Collins 2005, p. 2) “… there is certainly ample proof to confirm that terrorist agencies are profiting” from the creation and marketing of fake and fake materials.
So why would terrorist organizations use the strategy of advertising rip-off Compact disks and Digital video disks to financing their episodes? Senator Collins (2005 g. 2) quotes the undersecretary of the U. S. Treasury Department, Stuart Levy: “We have signals that… al-Qaeda… [is] hurting for money [and] avoiding formal financing stations and instead spending a ton riskier plus more cumbersome programs, like mass cash smuggling. ” And one very lucrative supply of bulk money is the sale of counterfeit consumer products, Levy added.
The IACC January 2005 “White Paper” cites a recent discovery by Danish officials (2005, p. 27) of “over a thousand milk crates full of counterfeit shampoos, ointments, cologne and perfume” that was related to “a member of al Qaeda” by the Western european Commission’s Customs Coordination Business office. Another rezzou of fake CDs, this kind of on in Durban, South Africa, turned up files linking the illegal merchandize to al-Qaeda (IACC 2005, p. 29).
SOLUTIONS pertaining to CUTTING OFF AL-QAEDA FUNDING OPTIONS: On January 29, 2002, the Deputy Secretary with the U. H. Department in the Treasury, Kenneth W. Dam, testified before the Senate Bank Committee that thanks to Title III in the U. S. A. PATRIOT ACT, the U. S i9000. was in a much better position to keep Bush’s guarantee to inches… starve the terrorists of funding” (Dam 2002 l. 1). Title III, called “The Foreign Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorist auto financing Act of 2001, inches requires American financial institutions inch… to eliminate correspondent accounts maintained pertaining to foreign cover banks. ” The Act also compels financial institutions to have “anti-money washing program in place by The spring, ” 2002.
How does the Treasury Office measure accomplishment? Dam told the senators besides tallying up the us dollars that are proven to have been freezing, Treasury counts the number of overseas governments which have been cooperating with the effort to block terrorist money; as of the date of his account, Dam claimed that 147 countries and jurisdictions internationally “have preventing orders in place” (Dam p. 2). Treasury even offers “technical assistance to a number of countries to help them develop the legal and observance infrastructure they require… “
At the same time, Title III the U. S. A. PATRIOT ACT is also a crucial tool to be used by the FBI, according to testimony of Dennis Lormel, Chief of “Terrorist Financing Operations Section, Counterterrorism Division, FBI, inches who talked to the Senate Judiciary Committee on October 9, 2002 (Lormel 2002 p. 1). Lormel informed the committee that Name III authorizes the F to inches… seize cash subject to forfeiture in a international bank account, inches and to “prosecute unlicensed money transmitters” (Lormel p. 2). Another adjustment tool that Title 3 gives to law enforcement comes with the ability to “data mine the Suspicious Activity Report (SAR), the Money Transaction Statement (CTR), and Currency and Monetary Device Report databases” (Lormel p. 3).
ISLAMIC CHARITIES LINKED to AL-QAEDA: In his report to the Senate, Lormel mentioned the PATRIOT ACT had presented law enforcement the power to deep freeze the assets of a lot of Islamic charities through “Operation Green Pursuit. ” Individuals charities consist of Al-Barakaat, the Holy Land Foundation to get Relief and Development, the Global Relief Foundation, and the Benevolence International Base. Typically, the FBI provides information to a court of law and obtains a search warrant to look into the charitable organisation, examine the books, and seize possessions.
Meanwhile, a lot of caution must be used once federal companies in the U. S. grab assets of Islamic non profit organizations they believe being connected to Al-Qaeda. That is the viewpoint of Patricia Rodriguez-Rey, in whose thesis in the Naval Postgraduate School (Rodriguez-Rey 2006 s. 1) take into account the fact that “Islamic charitable organizations account for a big portion of education assistance all over the world. ” In her analysis paper (“A Balancing Action: Anti-Terror Auto financing Guidelines Their very own Effects upon Islamic Charities”) the article writer explains that the law enforcement company within the Rights Department that handles seizures of charity-related assets is the Alcohol, Tobacco and Weapons (ATF) division. Unfortunately, the PATRIOT WORK policies typically “require very little proof just before assets will be frozen and groups will be blacklisted” (Rodriguez-Rey p. 4), and that can end up being unfair and unproductive.
Blacklisting charities runs the risk of indiscriminately affecting almost all charities through fear of it is constituency basic, ” Rodriguez-Rey writes (p. 8). Even more, Islamic charitable organization assets had been frozen “or shut down whether guilty or not, in an effort to ‘do something’ about the condition, ” the author explains (p. 5). In case the U. S i9000. government agencies associated with attempting to shut off funds to al-Qaeda would attempt to take hold of a more deeply understanding of Islamic charities, including relating to the “cultural requirements for charitable donation” instead of use a “search-and-seize approach, ” better results can be forthcoming (Rodriguez-Ray p. 5).
The way in which ATF and the FBI went of the search shortly after 9/11, the author explains, was more along the lines of “guilt by association” than real examinative methods. Rodriguez-Ray suggests that the U. S. law enforcement agencies “build partnerships” with the Muslim community in an effort to create “understanding and cooperation” (p. 67). Moreover, the U. H. should produce a “white list” of charitable organizations that are plainly not involved with funneling funds to al-Qaeda that would balance the “black list” of charities that are proven to be helping al-Qaeda (p. 68). This may be a “good faith” touch to the Muslim community, showing that the U. S. can be “willing to utilize them rather than against all of them in the protection of charitable funds” (Rodriguez-Rey p. 68).
COUNTERTERRORISM and REALITY: Matthew Levitt produces in the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs that inches… dollar amount frozen is not really the issue” (Levitt 2003, p. 3). What is by issue is definitely “… shutting down the crucial nodes through which terrorists raise, launder, and transfer money. ” And Levitt points out that “counterterrorism is not about defeating terrorism; it truly is about constricting the working environment – making it harder for them to perform what they want to accomplish… ” (Levitt p. 3). Levitt’s level is very well taken; there always exists terrorists
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