Lesson on LAND REFORM
Land Change – refers to the full selection of measures that maybe taken to improve or perhaps remedy the defects in the relations among men regarding their rights in Land.
– Bundled set of procedures designed to get rid of obstacles to economic and social development arising out of disorders in the Rustic structure. Provincial Structure (also known as structural reform) is described as a complex set of relationship within the agricultural sector between Period Structure, Development Structure, and Structure of Supporting solutions.
1 . Terrain Tenure Structure – is actually a concept which in turn refers to one or more types of Land Tenure Systems managing the rights to ownership, control and usage of Property and the obligations accompanying this kind of rights. 2 . Production Composition – is a concept which will relates to the nature, type and modus operandi as well as the genuine process of development or plantation operation. 3. Structure of Supporting Solutions – can be described as concept which involves matters like credit, advertising, the providing of farming requisites, digesting, storage and also other technical assistance in so far as they may have some immediate bearing on reforms of tenure and production set ups.
Agrarian Change – (wider than Land Reform) the definition of comprises not only Land Change but as well the change and progress complimentary institutional framework. That encompasses every programs made to bring about improvement in all the institutions surrounding plantation life. It really is concerned not simply with the player and the terrain he till but also with the community he lives in.
Philippine Agrarian Structures
The routine of area ownership inside the Phils. Has become historically the cause of interpersonal unrest.
– by 1960, the problem of tenancy was far from being fixed. Some 41% of all farms were developed by renters as compared to 37% in 1948. – Tenancy is still deeply ingrained in our agrarian composition despite numerous land reform attempts from the government. – The problem was even more explosive in the rice – developing, the rate of tenancy was higher (31% in 1971). – These figures describe why the HUK motivated was strongest in Central Luzon and Cagayan Valley. It even resulted to: a. cultural time explosive device in Negros Occidental and
b. Sakdalista rebellion in Cabuyao Laguna
Evils of Landlordism
1 . Inquilinato System – under this technique, the tenant bore all of the risks. The absentee homeowner merely anxiously waited for the harvest and collected twelve-monthly rent. installment payments on your Kasama System – the tenant usually furnished the land, farm tools, seed products and bills for transplanting and collection. Although the sharing was regulated by la, abuses by the Land Lord continued unabated because of the less strong position with the tenants. several. Takipan Program – the tenant repaid two cavans of palay for every cavan that he borrowed. The interest rate of fully. 4. Talindua and Terciahan – within the former, the speed of interest was 50%, within the latter, 33% or 1/3. If the Mortgage had been made in cash and was payable in kind, the structure called for a 50-75% curiosity. 5. Latifundia – was the wrong sort of paternalism that it bred in some regions specifically in the European Visayas. Under this system, the tenant goes to the Landlord for cash when somebody in the relatives died neither got married, beginning, for university fees, harvesting is destroyed etc .
• Landlordism was often a great unjust and inequitable program. But , more, it was an obstacle to economic improvement, because, the farmers were hindered from rising agricultural productivity, a necessity for long-run growth.
REGULATIONS OF PROVINCIAL REFORM
1 . P. D. 28 – regulation to emancipate the character from the g?te of ground – initial law in Agrarian Reform (Oct. 21, 1972) 2 . R. A. 1199 – Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 (Amended by R. A. 2263) 3. 3rd there�s r. A. 1400 – Land Reform Work of 1955
4. 3rd there�s r. A. 3844 – Agricultural Land Change Code of 1963 (Amended by L. A. 6384) 5. Ur. A. 6369 – Agrarian Reform particular fund (1973)
six. PD No . 2 – declaring the entire Phil. Because Land Reform area (1972) 7. At the. O. No . 228 – declaring full land possession to competent farmer beneficiaries covered by PD 27. (July 17, 1987) 8. L. A. 6657 – Extensive Agrarian Change law (1988) 9. Electronic. O. 229 and Proc # 131 – Instituting a Comprehensive Arcadian Reform Program 1987.
Imperatives of Rustic Reform
a. Farmers to be 3rd party landowners, increase their production, collection them free from poverty and debt, and make them dignified participants in nation building.
m. would free the capital for investment in new sectors, which would increase production and provide career to the expanding population and raise quality lifestyle.
c. It can correct this current imbalance within our society high are tremendous concentrations of land, riches and power in the hands of a few. g. Not least, the terrain reform program will make democracy truly significant to the people.
Lecture # two
Taxation – is the act of laying at taxes, ie., the task or means by which the sovereign, through its law – making body, raises profits to defray the necessary expenses of government.
Taxation – are the enforced proportional contributions from persons and property levied by the Law-making body from the state due to its sovereignty for the support from the government and everything public requirements.
IMPORTANCE AND PURPOSE OF TAXATION
a. Present funds in promoting general wellbeing and protection of it is citizens m. to financing government’s multifarious activities and
c. it is the lifeblood of the land
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF TAX
1 ) It is an unplaned contribution
2 . It really is generally payable in money
several. It is in proportion in persona
four. It is accessed by the state which has legal system over the person or real estate 5. it truly is levied on person and property
6. It can be levied by law-making body of the state and;
7. it really is levied pertaining to the public reasons
THEORY AND BASIS OF TAXATION
1 . Existence of government is necessary. Which it cannot continue without methods to pay its expenses, therefore it has a right to compel almost all its residents and real estate within the limit to contribute. 2 . The basis of taxation is found in the reciprocal duties of protection and support involving the state as well as its inhabitants. (Benefit received principle)
NATURE OF POWER OF TAXATION
1 ) It is inherent in sovereignty
2 . it is legislative in personality
3. it is subject to constitutional and inherent constraints
CLASSIFICATIONS AND DISTINCTIONS
1 . About subject matter or perhaps object:
a. Personal or Capitation – Taxes of a fixed amount made on specific, residing within a specified place. b. Real estate –
imposed about property, if real or perhaps personal. c. Excise – any duty which does not fall within the classification of any poll house tax. 2 . As to goal
a. General, Fiscal, or perhaps Revenue – imposed pertaining to the general functions of the government’s b. Unique Regulatory – imposed to get special purposes to achieve some social or perhaps economic ends irrespective of whether income is actually brought up or not. 3. Regarding scope to get Authority
a. National – Tax imposed by the national government’s m. Municipal – or local – made by city and county or general public corporations 5. As to determine of Consideration
a. Specific – tax of fixed sum imposed by head or number or perhaps by a lot of standard of weight or measurement. n. Ad Valorem – Tax of a set proportion from the value with the property w/ respect that the tax is assessed. 5. Regarding whom listens to the burden
a. Direct – Tax which can be demanded from your person who likewise shoulders the burden fo the tax m. Indirect – demanded from person in the expectation and intention that he should certainly indemnity himself at the expenses of an additional. (ex. VAT) 6. As to Graduation or Rate
a. Proportional – tax based upon a fixed percentage of the quantity of the house, income or perhaps other basis to be taxed. b. Modern or graduated – Tax the rate that increases while the taxes base or perhaps bracket increases. c. Regressive – taxes the rate that decreases as the taxes base or perhaps bracket improves. (we don’t have this kind).
OTHER TERMS DISTINGUESHED COMING FROM TAX
1 . Revenue – refers to every one of the income derived by the government. (Tax is roofed as revenue).
installment payments on your Internal Earnings – refers to taxes made by the legislature other than duties on imports and exports. 3. Custom made Duties – Taxes imposed on items exported coming from or brought in into a country. 4. Financial debt – Tax is not a
personal debt. Debt will be based upon contract, it can be assignable, could be paid in kind and person w. debt may not be imprisoned your five. Penalty – punishment for violation of law
Income – ( intended for purposes of Tax) almost all wealth which flows in the tax payer other than as a mere come back on capital.
Income Tax – tax on a folks income, revenue and the like recognized in one taxable year. Gross Income –all profits but not which include exempt profits and income subject to final income tax.
1 . salaries/wages services which include fees
2 . commissions
several. sale of and other dealings in business
4. interests and rents
5. dividends and investments and
6. cash flow derived kind gambling and illegal means