COMPARISON STATEMENT COMMON SIZE ASSERTION AND PATTERN ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION We know organization is mainly interested in the economical activities. To be able to ascertain the financial position of the organization every venture prepares selected statements, referred to as financial transactions. Financial statements are mainly ready for making decisions purpose. But the information as is provided in the financial statements is certainly not adequately helpful in drawing a meaningful summary. Thus, an effective analysis and interpretation of economic statements is required.

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Analysis means establishing a meaningful romantic relationship between numerous items of both financial assertions with each other so that a conclusion is drawn. By monetary statements we mean two statements: (i) Profit and loss Consideration or Profits Statement (ii) Balance Sheet or Position Assertion These are prepared at the end of a given time frame. They are the indications of success and economic soundness of the business matter. The term monetary analysis is also known as research and interpretation of financial assertions.

It identifies the building meaningful romantic relationship between numerous items of both the financial claims i. elizabeth. Income assertion and location statement. It determines economical strength and weaknesses of the firm. Analysis of financial statements is an attempt to assess the efficiency and satisfaction of an venture. Thus, the analysis and interpretation of financial statements is incredibly essential to measure the efficiency, profitability, financial soundness and long term prospects from the business units. Types of financial statement are: 1) Comparative affirmation 2) Prevalent size statement ) Trend analysis Financial analysis provides the following reasons: 1 . Computing the profitability The main objective of your business is to earn a satisfactory return within the funds used it. Monetary analysis assists with ascertaining if adequate income are getting earned for the capital committed to the business or not. Additionally, it helps in knowing the capacity to shell out the interest and dividend. 2 . Indicating the trend of Successes Financial claims of the past years may be compared and the trend regarding various bills, purchases, revenue, gross earnings and net profit and so forth an always be ascertained. Benefit of property and liabilities can be compared and the future prospects in the business could be envisaged. Determining the growth potential of the organization. The trend and also other analysis of the business delivers sufficient details indicating the growth potential with the business. 3. Comparative position in relation to additional firms The goal of financial assertions analysis should be to help the managing to make a comparative study in the profitability of varied firms involved in similar businesses.

Such assessment also helps the management to analyze the position with their firm in respect of sales, expenses, profitability and utilising capital, etc . 5. Assess general financial strength The purpose of economic analysis is always to assess the monetary strength with the business. Evaluation also helps in choosing decisions, whether funds necessary for the getting new equipment and tools are provided by internal types of the business or not if yes, how much? As well as assess how much funds have been completely received via external resources. 5. Determine solvency in the firm

Different tools of an analysis tell us whether the firm has adequate funds to satisfy its short term and long-term liabilities or perhaps not. GET-TOGETHERS INTERESTED Analysis of financial statements has become incredibly significant because of widespread interest of various functions in the economic results of your business device. The various functions interested in the analysis of economic statements happen to be: (i) Shareholders: Shareholders or proprietors from the business have an interest in the health of the organization. They want to know the making capacity from the business as well as prospects of future development. ii) Supervision: The administration is interested in the financial position and performance of the enterprise overall and of the various partitions. It helps these people in planning budgets and assessing the performance of various departmental mind. (iii) Operate unions: They may be interested in monetary statements for negotiating the wages or perhaps salaries or perhaps bonus agreement with the supervision. (iv) Lenders: Lenders to the business like debenture slots, suppliers of loans and lease are interested to know short term as well as long term solvency placement of the enterprise. v) Suppliers and trade creditors: The suppliers and other creditors have an interest to know about the solvency of the business i. e. the ability from the company to fulfill the debt as and when they will fall thanks. (vi) Tax authorities: Taxes authorities have an interest in financial transactions for deciding the tax liability. (vii) Researchers: They are interested in economical statements in undertaking study in business affairs and procedures. (viii) Workers: They are interested to know the growth of earnings.

As a result of that they can demand better remuneration and good-natured working environment. (ix) Government and their agencies: Government and their companies need economic information to manage the activities with the enterprises/ industrial sectors and determine taxation plan. They advise measures to formulate guidelines and polices. (x) Stock exchange: The stock market members take interest in financial assertions for the purpose of examination because they provide useful monetary information about companies. Thus, we find that distinct parties have got interest in economic tatements for different reasons. COMPARATIVE STATEMENT Relative statements will be financial claims that cover another type of time frame, but are formatted in a fashion that makes assessing line items from one period to those of your different period an easy method. This top quality means that the comparative statement can be described as financial statement that deepens itself well to the procedure for comparative examination. Many companies employ standardized formats in accounting functions which make the era of a comparative statement fast and simple. IMPORTANCE AND USES

Some great benefits of a comparative statement happen to be varied for the corporation. Because of the uniform format of the statement, it is a basic process to compare the gross sales of the given product or all products with the company while using gross sales generated in a prior month, quarter, or year. Comparing made revenue in one period to a new period can also add another aspect to examining the effectiveness of the sales effort, as the process makes it possible to determine trends such as a drop in revenue in spite of an increase in products sold.

Plus its an excellent way to broaden the understanding of the achievements of the revenue effort, a comparative affirmation can also support address within production costs. By contrasting line items that catalogue the expense for raw materials in one 1 / 4 with one other quarter the place that the number of devices produced is similar can make it feasible to spot styles in expenditure increases, and so help separate the origin of those increases. This kind of data can prove helpful to allowing the company to find raw materials coming from another source before the elevated price to get materials reductions into the overall profitability of the company.

A comparative assertion can be helpful for virtually every organization that should deal with finances in some manner. Also non-profit agencies can use the comparative statement approach to ascertain trends in annual fund elevating efforts. By utilizing the comparative assertion for the most latest effort and comparing the figures with those of the prior year’s function, it is possible to ascertain where bills increased or decreased, and supply some perception in how to plan the following year’s event.

FEATURES OF COMPARITIVE ASSERTIONS: – 1) A comparative statement gives meaning for the financial info. 2) It can be used to efficiently measure the perform of the organization activities. 3) Comparative affirmation analysis is employed for intra firm analysis and inters firm analysis. 4) A comparative affirmation analysis implies change in sum as well as difference in percentage. 5) A positive change in amount and percentage signifies an increase and a negative enhancements made on amount and percentage implies a decrease. ) In case the value in the first 12 months is zero then difference in percentage can not be indicated. This can be a limitation of comparative affirmation analysis. Although interpreting the results qualitative inferences need to be drawn. 7) It is a popular tool useful for analysis by financial analysts. 8) A comparative declaration analysis cannot be used to evaluate more than 2 years financial data. COMMON SIZE FINANCIAL ASSERTIONS Common size ratios are accustomed to compare monetary statements of different-size companies or of the identical company above different durations.

By expressing the items equal in porportion to some size-related measure, standardised financial claims can be created, revealing styles and featuring insight into the way the different firms compare. The common size proportion for each line on the economical statement is definitely calculated as follows: Common Size Ratio| =| Item of Interest| | Reference Item| | For instance , if the item of interest is usually inventory in fact it is referenced to total assets (as it normally would be), the common size ratio will be: Common Size Ratio for Inventory| =| Inventory| |

Total Assets| | The ratios generally are expressed as proportions of the reference point amount. Prevalent size statements usually are ready for the income declaration and “balance sheet”, expressing data as follows: 2. Income declaration items indicated as a percentage of total revenue 5. Balance sheet things expressed being a percentage of total assets The following case income assertion shows both the rupee quantities and the prevalent size ratios: Common Size Income Statement | Income Statement| Common-Size Income Statement| Revenue| 75, 134| 100%|

Cost of Goods Sold| 44, 221| 63. 1%| Low Profit| 25, 913| thirty-six. 9%| SG&A Expense| 13, 531| 19. 3%| Working Income| doze, 382| 17. 7%| Fascination Expense| two, 862| 5. 1%| Provision for Taxes| 3, 766| 5. 4%| Net Income| 5, 754| 8. 2%| For the balance sheet, the common size percentages are referenced to the total assets. The subsequent sample “balance sheet” shows the dollar portions and the common size proportions: Common Size Balance Sheet | Balance Sheet| Common-SizeBalance Sheet| ASSETS| Cash & Marketable Securities| 6, 029| 15. 1%|

Accounts Receivable| 14, 378| 36. 0%| Inventory| seventeen, 136| 40. 9%| Total Current Assets| 37, 543| 93. 9%| Property, Flower, & Equipment| 2, 442| 6. 1%| Total Assets| 39, 985| 100%| LIABILITIES AND INVESTORS EQUITY| Current Liabilities| 13, 251| 35. 6%| Long term Debt| doze, 624| thirty-one. 6%| Total Liabilities| 26, 875| 67. 2%| Shareholders Equity| 13, 110| thirty-two. 8%| Total Liabilities & Equity| 39, 985| 100%| The above prevalent size statements are prepared within a vertical research, referencing each line around the financial declaration to a total value around the statement in a given period.

The proportions in common size statements generally have less variation than the total values themselves, and developments in the proportions can reveal important modifications in our business. Historical comparisons can be made in a time-series analysis to identify such trends. Prevalent size assertions also can be taken to evaluate the company to different firms. Reviews Between Firms (Cross-Sectional Analysis) Common size financial claims can be used to evaluate multiple businesses at the same time.

A common-size analysis is especially useful when comparing companies of various sizes. It often is useful to compare a firm towards the best executing firm in its industry (benchmarking). A firm also can be when compared to its market as a whole. To compare to the industry, the ratios happen to be calculated for every firm in the market and a normal for the industry is calculated. Comparison statements then may be designed with the company appealing in one line and the market averages within.

The result is an easy overview of where firm stands in the industry regarding key items on the monetary statements FEATURES OF COMMON SIZE STATEMENT 1 ) A common size statement research indicates the relation of each component to the complete. 2 . In the event of a Common Size Income statement analysis Net Sales is taken as totally and in circumstance of Common Size “balance sheet” analysis total funds available/total capital applied is considered since 100%. several. It is used for vertical monetary analysis and comparison of two business enterprises or two years economic data.. Absolute figures from your financial declaration are hard to compare but when converted and expressed because percentage of net sales in case of income statement and in case of Balance Sheet because percentage of total net assets or total cash employed it becomes more important to relate. 5. One common size evaluation is a sort of ratio research where in the case of income affirmation sales may be the denominator (base) and in circumstance of Balance Sheet funds applied or total net resources is the denominator (base) and everything items are expressed as a regards to it. 6.

In case of prevalent size statement analysis the absolute figures happen to be converted to amounts for the purpose of inter-firm as well as intra-firm analysis.. Limitations As with economic statements on the whole, the model of common size assertions is susceptible to many of the restrictions in the accounting data utilized to construct them. For example: 1 . Different accounting policies can be used by diverse firms or within the same firm for different details in time. Modifications should be designed for such distinctions. 2 . Diverse firms may use different accounting calendars, hence the accounting intervals may not be straight comparable.

TENDENCY STATEMENT Tendency analysis computes the percentage transform for one accounts over a period of moments of two years or even more. Percentage change To calculate the proportion change among two times: Calculate the amount of the increase/ (decrease) intended for the period by simply subtracting the earlier year through the later season. If the big difference is negative, the modify is a decrease and if the is positive, it is an boost. Divide the change by the earlier years balance. The result is the percentage modify. Calculation of Percentage Change: amount in 000 rupees) (N/M: certainly not meaningful) | 2001| 2000| Increase/(Decrease) | Percent Alter | Cash| 6, 950| 6, 330| 620| on the lookout for. 8%| Accounts Receivable, net| 18, 567| 19, 330| (763)| (3. 9%)| | | | | | Sales| 129, 000| 103, 000| dua puluh enam, 000| twenty-five. 2%| Hire Expense| 10, 000| 0| 10, 000| N/M| Net gain (Loss)| almost 8, 130| (1, 400)| 9, 530| N/M| | Calculations notes: 1 ) 2000 is the earlier year so the amount in the 20X0 column is definitely subtracted from your amount inside the 2001 column. 2 .

The percent transform is the increase or reduce divided by the earlier sum (2000 with this example) moments 100. Written as a formula, the percent change is usually: | | | | 3. If the earliest season is absolutely no or bad, the percent calculated will never be meaningful. N/M is used in the above stand for not important. 4. Many percents happen to be rounded to one decimal place unless even more are meaningful. 5. A little absolute rupee item may possibly have a big percentage modify and be regarded misleading. Trend percentages To calculate the change over the longer period of time”for case, to develop a sales trend”follow the steps under: 1 .

Pick the base season. 2 . For every single line item, divide the amount in every non foundation year by amount inside the base year and increase in numbers by 100. 3. In the following case, 2007 is a base yr, so its percentages (see bottom half of the following table) are all 100. 0. The odds in the other years were calculated by dividing every amount within a particular yr by the corresponding amount inside the base year and grow by 75. Calculation of Trend Percentages (amount in rupees) | 2001 | 2000 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | Historical Data | | | | | | Inventory| doze, 309| doze, 202| 12, 102| 10, 973| eleven, 743|

Property, equipment| seventy four, 422| 78, 938| sixty four, 203| 66, 239| sixty-eight, 450| Current liabilities| 28, 945| 40, 347| twenty seven, 670| twenty eight, 259| dua puluh enam, 737| Sales| 129, 000| 97, 000| 95, 000| 87, 000| 81, 000| Cost of goods sold| seventy, 950| fifty nine, 740| 48, 100| 47, 200| forty five, 500| Working expenses| forty two, 600| 35, 055| 32, 990| 29, 690| twenty-seven, 050| Net income (loss)| eight, 130| (1, 400)| six, 869| 5, 093| 3, 812| Craze Percentages | | | | | | Inventory| 104. 8| 103. 9| 103. 1| 102. 0| 100. 0| Property, equipment| 108. 7| 115. 3| 93. 8| 95. 3| 100. 0| Current liabilities| 104. 5| 113. 5| 103. 5| 105. 7| 100. 0| Sales| 164. | 119. 8| 117. 3| 107. 4| 100. 0| Cost of goods sold| 155. 9| 131. 3| 105. 7| 103. 7| 100. 0| Operating expenses| 157. 5| 140. 7| 122. 0| 109. 8| 100. 0| Net income (loss)| 213. 3| (36. 7)| 206. 4| 133. 6| 100. 0| | Calculation notes: 1 ) The base season trend percentage is always 90. 0%. A trend percentage of less than 100. 0% means the total amount has decreased below the basic year level in that particular year. A trend percentage greater than 95. 0% means the balance because year has increased over the basic year. A bad trend percentage represents a bad number. 2 .

If the basic year can be zero or perhaps negative, the trend percentage worked out will not be important. 3. Through this example, the sales include increased 59. 3% within the five-year period while the cost of goods sold has increased simply 55. 9% and the operating expenses possess increased simply 57. five per cent. The styles look several if evaluated after four years. At the conclusion of 2000, the product sales had improved almost twenty percent, but the cost of goods offered had elevated 31%, plus the operating bills had increased almost 41%. These 2150 trend percentages reflect a great unfavourable effect on net income mainly because costs increased at a faster rate than sales.

Fashionable percentages to get net income is very much higher because the base season amount is much smaller than the other balances. FEATURES OF TENDENCY ANALYSIS 1) In case of a trend evaluation all the offered years happen to be arranged in an ascending order. 2) The first season is referred to as the “Base year and figures with the base yr are taken as 100%. 3) Item inside the subsequent years are compared to that of the base year. 4) If the percentages in the subsequent years is above completely it indicates a rise over the foundation year and if the percentages happen to be below completely it indicates a decrease within the base 12 months. ) A trend research gives a better picture with the overall performance with the business. 6) A tendency analysis can be useful for analysing the financial performance over a period of time. 7) A trend analysis indicates through which direction a business is going i. e. upward or perhaps downwards. 8) A craze analysis makes it possible for effective comparison study in the financial functionality over a period of time. 9) For trend analysis at least three years economical data is important. Broader the base the more dependable is the data and examination.

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